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1  (of 6 Overheads)
 AYN RAND [1905-1982]: THE VIRTUE OF SELFISHNESS
 

þ BORN IN RUSSIA, GOT TASTE OF SOVIET SOCIALISM,
EMMIGRATED TO U.S., "THE COUNTRY OF THE
INDIVIDUAL," IN 1926.

þ BECAME WRITER & NOVELIST. MAIN WORKS:

     þ WE THE LIVING [1936]
     þ THE FOUNTAINHEAD [1043] *
     þ ATLAS SHRUGGED [1957]

     þ FOR THE NEW INTELLECTUAL [1961]
     þ THE VIRTUE OF SELFISHNESS [1965]
     þ CAPITALISM: THE UNKNOWN IDEAL [1966]
 

þ EGOISM =

     þ EGO = SELF

     þ THE ETHICAL DOCTRINE THAT MORALITY HAS ITS
FOUNDATION IN SELF-INTEREST.

     þ THE BELIEF THAT SELF-INTEREST IS THE JUST &
       PROPER MOTIVE FOR ALL HUMAN CONDUCT.

þ ALTRUISM =

     þ CONCERN FOR THE WELFARE OF OTHERS, AS
       OPPOSED TO EGOISM; SELFLESSNESS. [FR. ALTRUI
       =OTHER; L. ALTER = OTHER]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

2

 AYN RAND'S THE FOUNTAINHEAD
 

þ THE FOUNTAINHEAD DEPICTS A HIGHLY ROMANTICIZED
  ARCHITECT-HERO, JOHN GALT, A SUPERIOR INDIVIDUAL
  WHOSE EGOISM AND GENIUS PREVAIL OVER TIMID
  TRADITIONALISM AND SOCIAL CONFORMISM.

þ AN IDEALISTIC, UNCOMPROMISING ARCHITECT, A
  CREATIVE PERSON WHO STANDS UP AGAINST THE
  IGNORANT COMMON HERD

þ HE ADMITS TO NO CONSTRAINTS OF HIS ACTIONS,
DEFYING BOTH ACCEPTED MORALITY [HE RAPES THE WOMEN
HE IS ATTRACTED TO] & THE LAW .

þ HE BLOWS UP THE HOUSING PROJECT HE DESIGNED
BECAUSE IT WAS CHANGED BY BUREAUCRATS PRESSURED BY
PUBLIC OPINION.

þ AT HIS TRIAL, THE ARCHITECT DEFENDS THE RIGHT OF
THE CREATIVE INDIVIDUAL TO PURSUE HIS OWN NEEDS &
DESIRES WITHOUT CONSTRAINT.
 
 

þ NOVEL IS A CONFUSING MIXTURE OF APPEALS TO
  SELF-INTEREST & SUGGESTIONS THAT EVERYONE
  WILL BENEFIT FROM LIBERATION OF THE CREATIVE
  ENERGY THAT WILL FLOW FROM UNFETTERED SELF-
  INTEREST.

þ SUGGESTS THAT TRUE SELF-INTEREST CANNOT BE
  SERVED BY STEALING, CHEATING, OR OTHER
  ANTISOCIAL CONDUCT.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

3
 AYN RAND'S THE FOUNTAINHEAD [C]
 

þ WHAT STARTS OUT AS A DEFENSE OF ETHICAL
  EGOISM SEEMS TO TURN INTO AN INDIRECT FORM
  OF UTILITARIANISM.

     þ THE CLAIM IS THAT WE WILL ALL BE BETTER OFF
       IF EACH OF US DOES WHAT IS IN HIS/HER SELF
       INTEREST.

     þ ETHICAL EGOIST COMPELLED TO MAKE THIS CLAIM.

     þ OTHERWISE, A PARADOX IN ETHICAL EGOIST
       ADVOCATING ETHICAL EGOISM --> OUR INTERESTS
       WOULD BE THREATENED BY OTHERS PURSUING THEIR
       OWN INTERESTS --> THUS WE WOULD NOT BENEFIT
       BY OTHERS BECOMING EGOISTS --> BETTER TO
       KEEP OUR BELIEF IN EGOISM SECRET, ADVOCATE
       ALTRUISM.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

4
 ANY RAND'S ATLAS SHRUGGED [1957]
 
 

þ NOVEL DENOUNCES GOVN. INTERFERENCE WITH RIGHTS OF
INDIVIDUALS, WHO OUGHT TO BE COMPLETELY FREE TO ACT
IN THEIR OWN "RATIONAL SELF-INTEREST."

þ GLORIFIES COMPLETELY UNRESTRAINED LAISSEZ-FAIRE
CAPITALISM AS THE IDEAL ECONOMIC SYSTEM.

þ DESCRIBES HOW CONSTRUCTION OF TRANSCONTINENTAL RR
NOT ONLY SATISFIES THE NEEDS OF A RUTHLESS
CAPITALIST FOR WEALTH & POWER, BUT ALSO BENEFITS
THE NATION AS A WHOLE.
 

þ RAND'S PHILOSOPHY EMPHASIZES THE NEED OF COMPLETE
FREEDOM FOR THE CREATIVE INDIVIDUAL EXEMPLIFIED BY
THE LEADING CHARACTERS OF HER NOVELS, WHO OVERCOME
OR IGNORE THE OBSTACLES CREATED BY "THE STATE" &
THE UNCOMPREHENDING COMMON HERD.

     þ LIKE NIETZSCHE'S SUPERMEN, THEIR WILL TO
POWER & SELF-SATISFACTION  IS THEIR ONLY GUIDE.

     þ LAW & MORALITY DON'T MATTER.
     þ SELF-AGGRANDIZEMENT IS HIGHEST MORAL VALUE.

þ RAND: ONE PUTS ONESELF ABOVE ALL AND CRUSHES
EVERYTHING IN ONE'S WAY TO GET THE BEST FOR
ONESELF."
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

5
 ANY RAND: ALTRUISM VS. EGOISM
 

þ RAND PROMOTED THE POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY OF
  OBJECTIVISM:

     þ A DEEPLY CONSERVATIVE PHILOSOPHY THAT SEES
       INDIVIDUAL EFFORT & ABILITY AS THE SOLE
       SOURCE OF ALL GENUINE ACHIEVEMENT.

     þ ARGUES THAT PURSUIT OF SELF-INTEREST AS
       FIRST PRINCIPLE.

     þ SCORNS ALTRUISM & SACRIFICE FOR THE COMMON
       GOOD AS LIBERAL DELUSIONS & EVEN VICES.

     þ SEES LAISSEZ-FAIRE CAPITALISM AS MOST
       CONGENIAL TO THE EXERCISE OF TALENT.
 

 ETHICAL EGOISM:

þ MANY ETHICAL SYSTEMS --> GOODS SOUGHT FOR ALL,
  NOT JUST FOR ONESELF.

þ ETHICAL EGOISM DEPARTS FROM SUCH, SUGGESTS THAT
  WE SHOULD EACH CONSIDER ONLY THE CONSEQUENCES OF
  OUR ACTIONS FOR OUR OWN INTERESTS:

     þ AVOIDS CONFLICT BETWEEN MORALITY & SELF-
       INTEREST.

þ TWO FORMS OF EGOISM:

     þ INDIVIDUAL EGOISM = "EVERYONE SHOULD DO WHAT
       IS IN MY INTERESTS."

          þ CAN'T BE UNIVERSALIZED.

          þ WON'T BE ABLE TO PERSUADE OTHERS TO
            FOLLOW A COURSE DESIGNED TO BENEFIT
 
            ONLY THE PERSON ADVOCATING IT.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

6
 ANY RAND: ALTRUISM VS. EGOISM [C]

     þ UNIVERSAL EGOISM -- " EVERYONE SHOULD DO
      WHAT IS IN HER OR HIS OWN INTEREST." THIS
      PRINCIPLE IS UNIVERSALIZABLE.

          þ OTHERS CAN ACCEPT BECAUSE IT APPEARS TO
            OFFER THEM THE SUREST POSSIBLE WAY OF
            FURTHERING THEIR OWN INTERESTS.

          þ SOME WRITERS SEIZE UPON THIS AS THE
            ANSWER TO ALL OUR ILLS -- E.G. RAND.

þ 
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