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JOSEPH STALIN [1879-1953]: RUTHLESS MARXIST LEADER
THAT FORCED RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATION OF USSR
 

# STALIN BECAME LEADER OF THE SOVIET UNION IN THE
1920S AFTER THE DEATH OF MARXIST LEADER LENIN IN
1924.
 

# INTERESTING INSIGHTS HERE INTO HOW SOVIET
COMMUNISTS RAPIDLY TRANSFORMED USSR FROM AGRARIAN
SOCIETY TO HIGHLY INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY IN A FEW
DECADES -- AND HIGH PRICE IT PAID TO DO SUCH.
 

# COMMUNIST PARTY THEORETICIAN NIKOLAI BUKHARIN
[1888-1938] IN LATE 1920S ARGUED THAT USSR'S RATE
OF ECONOMIC GROWTH WAS LIMITED BY SIZE OF
AGRICULTURAL SURPLUS: SURPLUS NEEDED TO FEED CITIES
& PROVIDE EXPORT, SO USSR COULD IMPORT MACHINERY
FOR INDUSTRIALIZATION.
 

# TWO CHIEF TASKS OF INDUSTRY WERE: (1) PRODUCTION
OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY; AND (2) PRODUCTION OF
CONSUMER GOODS FOR SALE TO PEASANTS AS AN
INDUCEMENT TO THEM TO PRODUCE MORE.
 

# THE MODERATE BUKHARIN URGED A PACE OF
INDUSTRIALIZATION COMMENSURATE WITH AN EXPANSION OF
AGRICULTURE ON A VOLUTARY BASIS.
 

# LEFT WING OF COMMUNIST PARTY, LED BY LEON TROTSKY
[1879-1940], LENIN'S RIGHT-HAND MAN DURING
BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION, PUSHED FOR MAX. POSSIBLE RATE
OF INDUSTRIALIZATION, MINIMIZING PRODUCTION OF
CONSUMER GOODS TO FREE RESOURCES FOR INDUSTRIAL
DEVELOPMENT. TROTSKY FAVORED USE OF STATE POWER TO
GREATLY STEP UP AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT. CALLED FOR
CREATING LARGE STATE-OWNED COLLECTIVE FARMS &
MECHANIZATION OF AGRICULTURE.

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JOSEPH STALIN [1879-1953]: RUTHLESS MARXIST LEADER
THAT FORCED RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATION OF USSR [C]
 

# WHY WAS COMMUNIST LEFT EAGER FOR RAPID
INDUSTRIALIZATION?

     # CONCERNED SOCIALIST USSR COULD
       NEVER BE SECURE IN A CAPITALIST WORLD.

     # BELIEVED USSR WOULD BE MOST SECURE BY
       FOSTERING WORLD REVOLUTION.

     # BELIEVED WORLD REVOLUTION COULD BE ADVANCED
       BY SHOWING SUPERIOR PRODUCTIVITY OF
       SOCIALISM THRU IMPRESSIVE ECONOMIC GROWTH.
 
 

# STALIN TOOK INTERMEDIATE POSITION AT FIRST,
SUPPORTING RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATION AS ADVOCATED BY
LEFT, BUT SIDING WITH THE RIGHT AGAINST
COLLECTIVIZATION OF AGRICULTURE, TO CONCILIATE THE
PEASANTRY.
 

# ON BASIS OF THIS ALLIANCE WITH RIGHT, STALIN
DROVE TROSKY INTO EXILE.
 

# THEN, IN A QUICK TURN AROUND, STALIN ADVOCATED
THE LEFT'S AGRICULTURAL POLICY, ACCELERATED THE
RATE OF CAPITAL ACCUMULATION, USED SUPPORT THEREBY
GAINED TO PURGE BUKHARIN & HIS MODERATE FOLLOWERS.
 

# TO ACHIEVE RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATION, STALIN'S
PLANNERS TARGETED THESE INDUSTRIES: COAL, ELECTRIC
POWER, STEEL, MACHINERY. ENTIRE ECONOMY TIED TO
THESE INDUSTRIES.

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JOSEPH STALIN [1879-1953]: RUTHLESS MARXIST LEADER
THAT FORCED RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATION OF USSR [C]
 

# NEED TO RESTRICT PRODUCTION OF CONSUMER GOODS
HELD BACK ADVANCES IN LIVING STANDARDS. FOR IF
SOVIETS HAD STEPPED UP PRODUCTION OF CONSUMER
GOODS, IT WOULD HAVE MEANT FEWER RESOURCES
AVAILABLE FOR EXPANDING INDUSTRY. FOR INSTANCE:

     # EVERY TON OF STEEL USED TO MAKE
       REFRIGERATORS MEANT ONE LESS TON OF STEEL
       FOR ELECTRICAL GENERATORS;

     # EVERY HOUR SPENT FOR CONSTRUCTING HOUSING
       MEANT ONE LESS LABOR HR FOR BUILDING A POWER
       DAM.
 

#  STRAIN ON LABOR FORCE CAUSED BY RAPID
INDUSTRIALIZATION WAS RELIEVED FOR A TIME BY:

     # REDUCING UNEMPLOYMENT;
     # DRAWING WOMEN INTO WORK FORCE;
     # SHIFTING WORKERS FROM AGRICULTURE TO
       INDUSTRY.
 

# IN 1917, RUSSIA AN AGRARIAN COUNTRY, WITH ONLY A
LITTLE INDUSTRY. BEGINNING IN 1928, STALIN LAUNCHED
SERIES OF FIVE-YEAR PLANS  TO BRING ABOUT RAPID
INDUSTRIALIZATION OF USSR. GNP GROWTH RATE BETWEEN
1928-40: 8 TO 9%/YR. GNP GROWTH SLOWED DOWN AFTER
DEATH OF STALIN IN 1953.
 

# WITHOUT THIS RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATION, SOVIETS
COULD NEVER HAVE DEFEATED HITLER'S INVADING ARMIES
IN WORLD WAR II. HAD HITLER DEFEATED THE USSR (AN
ALLY OF U.S., BRITAIN), HITLER WOULD HAVE BECOME
MASTER OF ALL EUROPE.
 

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JOSEPH STALIN [1879-1953]: RUTHLESS MARXIST LEADER
THAT FORCED RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATION OF USSR [C]
 

# STALIN RUTHLESS. DURING EARLY 1930S, HE ORDERED
FORCED COLLECTIVIZATION OF SOVIET AGRICULTURE.
BEFORE, THERE HAD BEEN MILLIONS OF RUSSIAN
COMMERCIAL FARMERS (KULAKS). STALIN EITHER STARVED
THEM OR HAD THEM MURDERED [ONE SOURCE ESTIMATES 12
MILLION KULAKS AND OTHERS WHO RESISTED FORCED
COLLECTIVIZATION KILLED].
 

# NONETHELESS, COLLECTIVE FARMS FACILITATED
AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION, SUBSTANTIALLY INCREASED
OUTPUT, AND INSURED ENTIRE INCREASE IN OUTPUT WENT
TO STATE RATHER THAN TO FARMERS.
 

# BUT WERE FEW INCENTIVES FOR FARM WORKERS AND
PRODUCTIVITY STAGNATED AFTER INITIAL INCREASE IN
OUTPUT.
 

# STALINIST SYSTEM OF AUTHORITY RATHER THAN
ECONOMIC INCENTIVES USED TO MOTIVATE WORKERS. ALSO
CONCENTRATION CAMPS [THE GULAG] USED TO DISCIPLINE
DISSIDENTS.
 

# IN LATE 1930S, STALIN, FEARFUL OF CONSPIRACY
AFOOT TO OVERTHROW HIM, LAUNCHED A PURGE AGAINST
ARMY OFFICERS AND COMMUNIST-PARTY MEMBERS. THE
NUMBER KILLED IN THE MILLIONS.
 

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JOSEPH STALIN [1879-1953]: RUTHLESS MARXIST LEADER
THAT FORCED RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATION OF USSR [C]
 
 

# LARGEST INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT WAS AT
MANITOGORSK ["MAGNETIC MOUNTAIN"] IN THE SOUTHERN
URAL MTS.

     # MT OF HIGH-GRADE IRON ORE THAT BECAME CORE
       FOR INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX: IRON & STEEL,
       CHEMICALS, MACHINERY, TRANSPORTATION
       EQUIPMENT.
 

# ALSO IMPORTANT WERE THE KUZNETSK COAL FIELDS IN
CENTRAL ASIA. IRON & STEEL COMPLEX CREATED HERE.
COAL SHIPPED FROM HERE TO MANITOGORSK. IRON ORE
SHIPPED FROM M 1500 MILES TO K.
 

# THESE TWO INDUSTRIAL AREAS BECAME CHIEF BASE FOR
SOVIET ARMS PRODUCTION IN WWII. GREAT BULK OF
SOVIET TANKS, ARTILLERY, AIRCRAFT THAT ENABLED
SOVIETS TO DEFEAT GERMANS CAME FROM INDUSTRIAL
COMPLEX AT MANITOGORSK.