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KEY POINTS FROM CAMERON, CH. 3

THE AGRARIAN BASIS

UNIQUE AMONG DEVELOPED CIVILIZATIONS:

     IN ANCIENT CITY-STATES, URBAN INSTITUTIONS DETERMINED CHAR. OF
ECONOMY & SOCIETY --> EVEN THOUGH MOST ENGAGED IN AGRI.

     IN MED EUROPE, AGRI INSTI SET THE TONE

     HAD URBAN AREAS, ESP IN FLANDERS AND ITALY
 

RECALL THE ORIGINS OF MEDIEVAL ECONOMY

     BURDEN OF TAXATION
     INEFFICIENCY & CORRUPTION OF ROMAN EMPIRE
     FINAL BREAKDOWN OF CENTRAL AUTHORITY
     GROWTH OF LARGE SELF-SUFFICENT ESTATES
     DECLINE OF TOWNS
     DECLINE OF INTER-REGIONAL TRADE

     PETTY KINGDOMS ROSE AND FELL -- CANT SUSTAIN --> NO EFFECTIVE
TAXATION.
 

FRANKISH KINGDOM --> LONGER THAN ANY OTHER

     BUT NO REG. SYSTEM OF TEXATION
     DEPENDED ON LOYALTY OF GREAT NOBLES.
 

 BEGINNING IN 8TH CENTURY, NEW HORDES OF INVADERS THREATENED
FRANKS & OTHER EUROPEANS FOR 2 CENTURIES:

     þ 711 AD -- MUSLIMS FORM N AFRICA INVADE SPAIN

     þ MUSLIMS LATER CONQUER SICILY, CORSICA, SARDINIA --> MED IS
MUSLIM LAKE.

     þ LATER IN 8TH CENTURY, VIKINGS RAID EUROPE

     þ IN 9TH CENTURY, FIERCE MAGNAR TRIBESMEN --> N ITALY, S
GERMANY, E FRANCE.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 TO DEAL WITH CRISIS, FRANKISH KINGS DEVISE SYSTEM OF MIL/POL
RELATIONSHIPS CALLED FEUDALISM:

     NO TAXATION SYSTEM
     NO MONEY ECONOMY
 

SOLN = FEUDALISM --> GIVE WARRIORS INCOME FROM GREAT ESTATES

     MANY CONFISCATED FROM CHURCH
     MILITARY SERVICE IN RETURN

     WARRIERS ALSO CHARGED WITH MAINTAINING ORDER AND ADMIN JUSTICE
ON ESTATES.
 

THE GREAT NOBLES --> DUKES, COUNTS, MARQUISES

     OWNED MANY ESTATES ENCOMPASSING MANY VILLAGES

     SOME OF THESE GRANTED TO LESSER LORDS & KNIGHTS

     OATH OF HOMAGE & FEALTY
     SUBINFEUDATION
 
 

 MANORIALISM

     þ LATIFUNDIAL TRANDSFORMED INTO SELF-SUFFICIENT ESTATES
     þ CULTIVATORS BOUND TO SOIL BY LAW OR CUSTOM

     þ MANORIALISM --> ECONOMIC BASIS FOR FEUDALISM
 
 

-----------------
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 RANKS OF FEUDAL NOBILITY
 
 

þ PEER -- A MEMBER OF ONE OF THE FIVE RANKS OF THE
BR. PEERAGE: BARON, VISCOUNT, EARL, MARQUESS (MARQUIS),
     DUKE

þ SQUIRE -- SERVANT TO A KNIGHT.

þ KNIGHT --
     A GENTLEMAN-SOLDIER, USU. OF HIGH BIRTH,
     RAISED TO PRIVELEDGED MILITARY STATUS AFTER
     TRAINING AS A PAGE & SQUIRE.
 

þ SEIGNEUR -- HELD A SINGLE MANOR.
 
 
 

þ BARON  --
 
     LOWEST RANK OF NOBILITY IN GREAT BR.,
     CERTAIN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, AND JAPAN,
     HOLDING POWER DIRECTLY FROM KING.

þ VISCOUNT & COUNT --

     A NOBLEMAN WHOSE RANK CORRESPONDED TO
     EARL IN ENGLAND.

þ EARL -- MEMBER OF BRITISH PEERAGE RANKING BELOW
  A MARQUESS & ABOVE A VISCOUNT.

þ MARQUESS OR MARQUIS -- MEMBER OF BR. PEERAGE RANKING BELOW
A DUKE & ABOVE AN EARL.

þ DUKE -- NOBLEMAN WITH HIGHEST HEREDITARY RANK, ESP. IN GB.
A PRINCE WWHO RULES AN INDEPENDENT DUCHY.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 BACKGROUNDER ON FEUDALISM
 

þ FORM OF POLITICAL & SOCIAL ORGANIZATION IN WESTERN
EUROPE FROM DISSOLUTION OF CHARLEMAGNE'S EMPIRE TO
RISE OF ABSOLUTE MMONARCHIES.

þ BASIS OF SYSTEM -- CHAOTIC CONDTIONS OF THE TIMES.
NEED OF LORD FOR ARMED WARRIORS & NEED OF VASSAL
FOR PROTECTION.

þ NOBILITY WAS MILITARY CLASS, WITH KNIGHT AS
TYPICAL WARRIOR.
 

þ FEUDALISM --> FEODUM --> FIEF --> COW

þ MEDIEVAL SOCIETY WAS DIVIDED INTO SOCIAL CLASSES:

     CLERGY
     NOBILITY
     PEASANTRY
     BURGESSES
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 BACKGROUNDER ON FEUDALISM [CON'T]
 

þ FEUDALISM --> CONTRACTS MADE AMONG NOBLES.

þ THE KING OWNED ALL LAND.

þ BENEATH THE KING WAS A HIERARCHY OF NOBLES:

     þ MOST IMPORTANT NOBLES HELD LAND DIRECTLY
          FROM THE KING.
 

 

þ THE GRANTOR OF THE FIEF WAS THE OVERLORD (SUZERAIN),
THE RECIEPIANT WAS THE VASSAL.

     þ VASSAL SUPPLIED A STIP. NO. OF ARMED MEN.
 
 

þ THE CEREMONY OF HOMAGE -- VASSAL SWORE AN OATH
OF FEALTY,  VOWING TO BE FAITHFUL TO OVERLORD
& PERFORM SERVICES TO HIM.
 

þ THEN OVERLORD INVESTED VASSAL WITH FIEF,
GIVING HIM SYMBOL OF THE LAND.
 

þ SUBINFEUDATION --> VASSAL IN TURN BECOMES AN OVERLORD,
GRANTING PART OF HIS FIEF TO HIS VASSAL.
 

þ LITTLE BY LITTLE, FIEF BECAME HEREDITARY
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 MANORIAL SYSTEM --
 

þ THE PEASANTS, LABORERS, SERFS HGELD THE LAND THEY
WORKED FROM THE SEIGNEUR
 
 

þ WHAT DID PEASANTS GET?

     USE OF THE LAND
     THE LORD'S PROTECTION
 
 

þ WHAT DID THE PEASANT HAVE TO DO FOR THESE BENEFITS?

     þ  PERSONAL SERVICE.
     þ  SERF HAD TO LABOR ON THE LORD'S DEMESNE.

     þ PAY DUES IN KIND.