Make your own free website on Tripod.com
 

Cameron Ch. 4 Outline (The 39 Overheads)

1
 THE WORLD OF ISLAM BEFORE 1500

þ ISLAM ORIGINATED IN ARABIA IN 7TH CENTURY AD:

     þ MOHAMMAD [570 - 632 AD]
     þ A MERCHANT --> ISLAM REGARDED MERCHANTS
          WITH ESTEEM.

þ ISLAM SPREAD IN TWO MAJOR WAVES:

     þ 632 TO 732 AD: FROM CENTRAL ASIA TO SPAIN

     þ 12 TO 15TH CENTURIES SPREAD TO THESE AREAS:

          þ ANATOLIA
          þ CENTRAL ASIA
          þ INDIA
          þ CEYLON
          þ INDONESIA
          þ SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
 

þ ORIGINAL ARABS AND OTHERS WHO EMBRACED ISLAM WERE
  NOMADIC:

     þ TENDED HERDS OF

          þ SHEEPS  þ GOATS   þ CAMELS  þ HORSES
          þ FEW CATTLE   þ NO PIGS
 

 

þ BUT THEY CONQUERED GREAT CITIES:

     þ TIGRIS-EUPHRATES
     þ THE NILE VALLEY
     þ ALEXANDRIA
     þ CAIRO
     þ CONSTANTINOPLE (RENAMED IT ISTANBUL)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

2
 THE WORLD OF ISLAM BEFORE 1500 [CON'T]
 

þ FOR HUNDREDS OF YRS, ARABS & FELLOW MUSLIMS WERE
MAIN INTERMEDIARIES IN TRADE BETWEEN ASIA AND
EUROPE:

     þ ISLAMIC HEARTLAND CONTAINED GREAT CARAVAN
 ROUTES BETWEEN ASIA & MEDITERRANEAN.

     þ MUSLIMS FACILITATED DIFFUSION OF TECHNOLOGY

          þ FROM CHINA --> MAGNETIC COMPASS
                      ART OF PAPER-MAKING
 
 

þ MUSLIMS ALSO INTRODUCED EUROPEANS TO MANY NEW
  CROPS THEY FROM INDIA OR ELSEWHERE IN ASIA OR
  AFRICA:

     þ RICE    þ SUGAR CANE   þ COTTON
     þ CITRUS FRUIT      þ WATERMELON
 
 

þ ARABIAN MERCHANTS TRAVELLED BY SEA EXTENSIVELY:

     þ ARABIAN SEA -- DOMINATED BY ARABIAN
MERCHANTS & SAILORS [E.G. LEGENDARY SINDBAD]

     þ ARABIAN MERCHANTS/SAILERS -> CHINA -->
          PORTS HAD COLONIES OF MUSLIM MERCHANTS

þ MUSLIMS USED RIVERS EXTENSIVELY --> DENSE NETWORK
     OF CANALS IN MESOPOTAMIA.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

3
 THE WORLD OF ISLAM BEFORE 1500 [CON'T]
 

þ LAND TRANSPORTATION

     þ CAMEL FAVORED FOR LONG-DISTANCE TRAVEL

          þ HUGE CARAVANS OF THOUSANDS OF CAMELS.

     þ HORSES, MULES, DONKEYS FOR SHORT TRIPS.

     þ WHEELED TRANSPORT DISAPPEARED FROM MIDEAST
          TILL 19TH CENT.
 

þ MUSLIMS HAD TOLERANT ATTITUDE TOWARDS CHRISTIANS
AND JEWS:

     þ MUCH FREEEDOM
     þ JEWISH MERCHANTS --> AGENTS SCATTERED THRU
          ISLAMIC WORLD FROM SPAIN TO INDONESIA.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

4
 ISLAMIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO WORLD CULTURE
 

þ MUSLIMS CONQUERED GREEK-SPEAKING EASTERN ROMAN
EMPIRE.
 

þ THUS MUSLIMS TOOK OVER LEARNING OF CLASSICAL
GREECE.
 

þ DURING EUROPEAN MIDDLE AGES. ARABS & CHINESE WERE
WORLD'S LEADERS IN SCIENTIFIC & PHILOSOPHICAL
THOUGHT.
 

þ MANY ANCIENT GK AUTHORS KNOWN TO US TODAY ONLY
THRU  ARABIC TRANSLATIONS.
 
 

þ MODERN MATH --> BASED ON HINDU-ARABIC NUMERALS:

     þ ROMAN NUMERALS: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII,
                         VIII, IX, X

     þ HINDU-ARABIC NUMERALS: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,0
 
 

þ ALGEBRA --> AN ARAB INVENTION

               5X - 5 = 0
 

þ CORDOBA: LEADING MUSLIM INTELLECTUAL CENTER

     þ MANY CHRISTIAN SCHOLARS STUDIED THERE IN
          11TH & 12TH CENT.
 

þ MERCANTILE PRACTICES: MANY CHRISTIAN MERCHANTS
LEARNED FORM MUSLIMS.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

5
 THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
 

þ  NORMADIC TURKISH TRIBES OF CENTRAL ASIA RAIDED &
CONQUERED MIDDLE EAST IN 13 & 14TH CENT.
 

þ TAMERLANE CONQUERED PERSIA AT END OF 14TH CENT.
 

þ ISMAEL FOUNDED SAFAVOD DYNASTY IN PERSIONIN 16TH
CENT.
 

þ MOST SUCCESSFUL OF TURKISH CONQUERORS -->
OTTOMANS

     þ SULTAN OSMAN [1259-1326]

     þ CONQUERS SMALL TERRITORY IN NW ANATOLIA
       FROM EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE (BYZANTINE).

     þ CONQUER CONSTANTINOPLE IN 1453.

     þ IN 16TH CENTURY, EXPAND INTO NEAR & MIDDLE
       EAST & NORTH AFRICA.

     þ IN EUROPE, OTTOMANS CONQUERED GREECE &
          BALKANS.
 

þ YET, VAST TERRITORY CONTROLLED BY TURKS WAS NOT
UNIFIED ECONOMY:

     þ HIGH COST OF TRANSPORT --> PREVENTED TRUE
INTEGRATION.

     þ EACH REGION CONTINUED ITS FORMER ECONOMIC
ACTIVITIES -- NO REGIONAL SPECIALIZATION.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

6
 THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE [CON'T]
 

þ KEY TO DURABILITY OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE:

     þ REGULAR, EQUITABLE SYSTEM OF TAXATION.
 

     þ AMPLE REVENUE TO SUPPORT BUREAUCRACY * ARMY.
 

     þ ORDER MAINTAINED THRU TURKISH OFFICIALS
          STATIONED IN PROVINCES.

          þ DRAW RENTS FROM SPECIFIC PARCELS OF
            LAND -- LIKE EUROPEAN FEUDALISM.

 
     þ TURKS WERE FEARED.
 

     þ YET, TREATED SUBJECTS OKAY AS LONG AS THEY
PAID TAXES & DIDN'T REVOLT.
 

     þ DIDN'T FORCE CONVERSION OF SUBJECTS TO
ISLAM.
 

     þ USED JANNISARIES --> ELITE SOLDIERS
RECRUITED FROM CHRISTIAN HOUSEHOLDS AS CHILDREN
 

     þ JEWS TOLERATED.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

7
 HIGHLIGHTS OF CHINESE CIVILIZATION
 

þ CHINA --> SELF CONTAINED CIVILIZATION.

þ ONLY RARELY DID FOREIGN BARBARIANS INTRUDE.

þ DYNASTIES ROSE & FELL --> SOMETIMES SEPARATED BY
PERIODS OF ANARCHY & WARRING STATES.

þ CONFUSIONISM ELABORATED IN 5TH CENTURY BC.

þ CHINESE BUREAUCRACY --> CARRIED ON BY MANDARINS
     STEEPED INCONFUSCIAN PHILOSOPHY.

     þ EMPEROR ALL POWERFUL.
     þ THEIR WISHES CARRIED OUT BY MANDARINS -->
          BROAD LATITUDE.

þ CRADLE OF CHINESE CIVILIZATION -->  YELLOW RIVER.
 

þ CHINESE AGRICULTURE

     þ MILLET --> NATIVE.
     þ WHEAT & BARLEY -->  FROM MIDDLE EAST
     þ RICE --> FROM SE ASIA.

     þ LABOR INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE.
     þ NO DRAFT ANIMALS.
     þ EXTENSIVE IRRIGATION.
     þ 1000 AD --> NEW RICE VARIETY --> ABLE TO
          PLANT 2 CROPS/YR ON SAME LAND -->
          PRODUCTIVITY ^^
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

8
 HIGHLIGHTS OF CHINESE CIVILIZATION [CON'T]
 
 

þ MORE EFFICIENT AGRICULTURE --> URBAN GROWTH
     --> FLOURISHING OF SKILLED CRAFTS
 
     þ BRONZE WORKING
     þ MFG OF SILK CLOTH --> EMERGED EARLY -->
       ANCIENT ROMANS GOT VIA CARAVAN ROUTE THRU
       CENTRAL ASIA --> GREAT SILK ROAD

     þ PORCELAIN --> CHINAWARE
     þ PAPER & PRINTING
     þ PAPER MONEY --> INFLATION --> MONETARY
        COLLAPSE.

     þ MAGNETIC COMPASS --> REACHED WEST THRU
       ARABS.

þ IN SUM, CHINESE REACHED HIGH LEVEL OF
  SCIENTIFIC/TECHNICAL DEVELOPMENT WELL
  IN ADVANCE OF WEST.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

9
 WHY DID INNOVATIVE CHINESE NOT ACHIEVE
     AN INDUSTRIAL AGE?
 

þ WHY DID NOT CHINA ENTER INDUSTRIAL ERA?

     þ CHINESE CRAFTS --> ELITE MKT

          þ GOVN. OFFICIALS
          þ LANDOWNING ARISTOCRATS
          þ PEASANT MASSES --> NO MKT --> TOO POOR.
 
 

þ CHINESE EXCELLED AT IRON PRODUCTION

     þ USED ONLY FOR WEAPONS, DECORATIVE ART.
     þ NOT USED FOR TOOLS.
 

þ MERCHANTS/COMMERCE --> LOW STATUS IN CONFUCIAN
PHILOSOPHY.

     þ WEALTHY MERCHANTS --> BECOME WEALTHY
       LANDOWNING ARISTOCRATS.
 

þ POPULATION GROWTH AS CHINA SPREAD DOWN YELLOW
RIVER & SOUTHWARD TO YANGTSE VALLEY
 
     þ  600 AD ............  50 MILLION PEOPLE
     þ 1200 AD ............ 100
     þ 1450 AD ............ 100

     þ  7TH CENT  .......... 75 % IN N. CHINA
     þ 13TH CENT  .......... 60 % IN CEN.+ S. CHINA
 

þ GRAND CANAL --> LINKED YELLOW & YANGTSE RIVERS

     þ MAINLY FOR GOVN. TO MAINTAIN CONTROL
     þ FACILITATED INTER-REGIONAL TRADE -->
          SOME REGIONAL SPECIALIZATION
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

10

 THE ERUPTION OF THE MONGOLS
 

þ MONGOLIA --> MONGOL TRIBES UNITED UNDER
     GENGHIS KHAN
 

þ IN 50 YRS, GENGHIS & SUCCESSORS CREATED LARGEST
     CONTINUOUS LAND EMPIRE EVER.
 
     þ KOREA IN EAST.
     þ POLAND & HUNGARY IN WEST.
 

þ IN 1258, CONQUERED ARAB CALIPHATE --> DESTROYED
     BAGHDAD.
 

þ MONGOLS BECAME RULERS IN:

     þ CHINA
     þ CENTRAL ASIA
     þ RUSSIA
     þ MIDDLE EAST
 

þ BRUTAL MONGOLS SETTLED DOWN, ADOPTED CIVILIZATION
OF CONQUERED PEOPLES.

     þ IN CENTRAL ASIA & MIDDLE EAST

          þ CONVERTED TO ISLAM.
          þ MIXED WITH TURKISH ALLIES
          þ MIXED WITH LOCAL POPULATIONS.
 

þ IN RUSSIA, MONGOLS DID NOT MIX.

     þ IN 1480, GRAND DUKE OF MOSCOW [IVAN
III]EXPELLED MONGOLS.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

11

 THE ERUPTION OF THE MONGOLS [CON'T]
 

þ IN CHINA, MONGOLS EST. YUAN DYNASTY [1260-1368]
þ ADOPTED CHINESE WAYS BUT MAINTAINED ETHNIC
     DISTINCTIVENESS.

þ MONGOLS OVERTHROWN AFTER A CENTURY.

þ MARCO POLO VISITED KUBLAI KHAN, GENGHIS'S
GRANDSON.

þ BY THEN, MONGOLS HAD ABANDONED WARLIKE WAYS,
MAINTAINED PEACE THRUOUT DOMAIN:

     þ TRADE FLUORISHED BETWEEN MED. & CHINA -->
MORE SO THAN IN ROMAN DAYS.

     þ GREAT SILK ROAD VERY SAFE.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

12

 DAWN OF THE MING DYNASTY [1368 - 1644]
 

þ REESTABLISHED TRADITIONAL CHINESE WAYS, ESP.:

     þ CONFUCIANISM & MANDARIN SYSTEM.
 

þ DURING LAST YRS OF MONGOL RULE:
     þ  ROADS & CANALS --> DISREPAIR
      POP DECLINE --> WAR, DROUGHT.
 

þ GOVN. MOVED TO RESTORE TRANSPORTATION LINKS.
 

þ MOVE CAPITAL NORTH: NANKING --> PEKING -->
STIMULATES N-S TRADE.
 

þ BEGIN CULTIVATING COTTON --> MFG COTTON CLOTH.
 

þ REGIONAL SPECIALIZATION MORE PRONOUNCED.
 

þ CHINESE START TRADING OVERSEAS:

     þ PREVIOUSLY LEFT TRADE TO FOREIGN MERCHANTS.

     þ NOW CHINESE SHIPS ALL OVER ASIA.

     þ IN EARLY 1400S, CHINESE ADMIRAL LEADS
       EXPEDITION INTO INDIAN OCEAN:

          þ SET UP CHINESE COLONIES IN:

             þ CEYLON    þ INDIA   þ PERSIAN GULF
             þ RED SEA   þ EAST COAST OF AFRICA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

13

 DAWN OF THE MING DYNASTY [1368 - 1644]
 

þ IN 1433, EMPEROR:

     þ FORBIDS FURTHER VOYAGES
     þ CALLS FOR DESTRUCTION OF OCEAN-GOING VESSELS
     þ PROHIBITS TRAVEL ABROAD.
 

þ WHAT IF CHINESE HAD BEEN IN INDIAN OCEAN WHEN
PORTUGUESE ARRIVED.  a DIFFERENCE?
 

þ KOREA & JAPAN IMITATE CHINESE CIVILIZATION.
     -- ESP CHINESE TECHNOLOGY.
 

þ KUBLAI KHAN ATTEMPTED INVASION OF JAPAN FROM
KOREA --> FLEET DESTROYED BY TYPHOON -- JAPANESE
CALL KAMIKAZE ["DIVINE WIND"]
 

þ EARLY IN 17TH CEN., SHOGUN BANS JAPANESE FROM
TRAVEL ABROAD & FORBADE CONSTRUCTION OF OCEAN-GOING
SHIPS.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

14

 DEVELOPMENTS IN INDIA
 

þ FIRST CIVILIZATION ON THE INDUS RIVER IN THIRD
MILLENIUM BC.

þ NUMEROUS PRINCIPALITIES, KINGDOMS, AND EMPIRES
HAVE RISEN & FALLEN:

     þ MATTEREDLITTLE TO THE MILLIONS OF PEASANTS
       LIVING IN VILLAGES.

þ WAVE OF MIGRANTS & INVADERS FROM THE NW VIA
PERSIA OR AFGHANISTAN

     þ ARYANS  þ BACTRIAN GREEKS   þ SCYTHIANS
     þ PARTHIANS    þ MONGOLS

þ  ANCIENT RELIGION IN INDIA WAS HINDUISM,
DEVELOPED BEFORE 500 BC.

     þ ARYANS --> BRAHMINS --> PRIESTLY CASTE

     þ BUDDHISM --> DEVELOPS ABOUT 500 BC

     þ BUDDHISM HAS GREATEST SUCCESS IN CHINA,
          KOREA, JAPAN --> ONLY SMALL PRESENCE IN
          INDIA IN MODERN TIMES.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

15

 DEVELOPMENTS IN INDIA [CON'T]

 
þ INVADERS BRING THE ISLAMIC RELIGION TO INDIA
BETWEEN 800 AD - 1600 AD.

þ MUSLIM INVADERS UNDER BABAR [RELATED TO GHENGIS
KHAN] EST. MOGUL [OR MUGHAL] EMPIRE IN NE INDIA

     þ GREATLY ENLARGED BY GRANDSON, AKBAR

þ RIVALRY BETWEEN MUSLIM & HINDU FACTIONS ENABLES
PORTUGUESE TO EST. TRADING BASES ON WEST COAST IN
16TH CENTURY.

þ HINDU CASTE SYSTEM --> IMPINGES ON ECONOMIC
SYSTEM

     þ PEOPLE BORN INTO ONE OF FIVE MAJOR CLASSES
OR CASTES:

     þ CASTE DEPENDS ON ETHNIC & OCCUPATIONAL
FACTORS.

     þ FIVE CASTES

          þ BRAHMINS --> RULING PRIESTS
          þ WARRIORS & RULERS
          þ FARMERS, ARTISANS, & MERCHANTS
          þ SERVANTS
          þ UNTOUCHABLES --> "OUTCASTES"

     þ MANY SUBDIVISIONS TO THE CASTES --> ONE FOR
EVERY OCCUPATION
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

16

 DEVELOPMENTS IN INDIA [CON'T]
 

þ RELIGION PRODUCES STABILITY OF SOCIAL/ECONOMIC
ORDER:
     þ MARX'S SUPERSTRUCTURE
     þ HINDUISM -- > TRANSMIGRATION OF SOULS
     þ KARMA --> RUNNIG TALLY OF GOOD & BAD DEEDS.
     þ DARMA --> OBLIGATION TO DO CASTE DUTIES.
 

þ CASTE SYSTEM VERY HIERARCHICAL

     þ RIGID STRICTURES AGAINST SOCIAL -- EVEN
PHYSICAL -- MINGLING.

          þ INTERMARRY ONLY WITHIN THE CASTE

 
þ CASTE SYSTEM

     þ BARRIER TO SOCIAL MOBILITY.
     þ BARRIER TO EFFICIENT ALLOCATION OF RESOURCES

þ HINDU VENERATION OF CATTLE

     þ SACRED COWS COULD NOT BE KILLED OR CONSUMED.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

17

 DEVELOPMENTS IN INDIA [CON'T]
 

þ VAST MAJORITY THEN & NOW LIVED IN VILLAGES

     þ PRACTICE LABOR-INTENSIVE NEAR SUBSISTENCE
AGRICULTURE:

          þ MONSOON AREAS --> RICE
          þ DRIER AREAS --> WHEAT, BARLEY, MILLET.

þ COTTON --> NATIVE TO INDIA.

þ VAST MAJORITY PRACTICE AGRICULTURE, BUT SMALL
CORE OF SKILLED CRAFTSPEOPLE:

  þ ART   þ STATUARY     þ MONUMENTAL ARCHITECTURE
 
 

þ CRAFTSMEN --> MKT IS FOR THE RICH & POWERFUL
                MASSES --> NO PURCHASING POWER

 

þ INDIA'S MIDDLE CLASS VERY SMALL:

     þ LITTLE COMMERCE THAT EXISTED BEFORE 1500 AD
       WAS HANDLED BY FOREIGNERS, ESP. ARABS.
 
 

þ THE TAJ MAHAL

     þ SOME CONSIDER MOST BEAUTIFUL BLDG IN WORLD

     þ CONSTRUCTED ON ORDERS OF 17TH CENTURY MOGOL
EMPEROR AS MAUSOLEUM FOR HIS WIFE.

     þ THOUSANDS OF ARTISANS/LABORERS WORKED MORE
THAN 10 YRS TO BUILD.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

18

 SOUTHEAST ASIA & INDONESIA
 

þ SOUTHEAST ASIA (INDOCHINA) = BURMA TO VIETNAM +
MALAY PENINSULA.

     þ INDIAN & CHINESE INFLUENCES.
 

þ MUCH TECHNOLOGY & ECONOMY BORROWED FROM CHINA.
 

þ STRONG IDIAN CULTURAL INFLUENCES (EXCEPT VIETNAM)
 

þ INDONESIA -- STRONGLY INFLUENCED BY INDIA:

     þ FIRST BY HINDU & BUDDIST CULTURES
     þ LATER BY ISLAM
 

þ BUDDHIST MONKS --> MONASTERIES --> CULTURAL
DIFFUSION

     þ RELIGIOUS CULTURE
     þ ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

19

  MAJOR CONTRIBUTIONS OF SE ASIA TO WORLD
 
 
 

þ RICE --> BECAME STAPLE FOOD OF CHINA, INDIA,
          & OTHER AREAS OF WORLD.
 
 
 

þ SPICES -- PEPPER, NUTMEG, GINGER, CLOVES

     þ MOST FROM ISLANDS IN INDONESIA

     þ CEYLON --> CINNAMON

     þ SPICES --> MOLUCCAS --> SPICE ISLANDS

     þ THESE SPICES HAVE LONG HAD MKT IN INDIA,
       CHINA, MIDDLE EAST, EUROPE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

20

 SOUTHEAST ASIA & INDONESIA: MUSLIM ARABS PLAY
     KEY ROLE IN TRADE
 

þ MUSLIM ARABS WERE MAIN INTERMEIDARIES BETWEEN
INDONESIA & INDIA.

     þ ALSO SPREAD ISLAM TO INDONESIA
       [EXCEPT BALI, WHICH REMAINED TRUE TO HINDU
       CULTURE]
 
 
 
 

þ ARABS TRANSPORTED CARGOES FROM INDIA TO
ALEXANDRIA AND OTHER EMPORIA OF EASTERN MED.

     þ THERE SOLD TO ITALIAN MERCHANTS [ESP.
VENETIANS].
 
 

þ DESIRE TO CIRCUMVENT THIS MONOPOLY --> MAIN
MOTIVE OF PORTUGUESE.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

21

 SOUTHEAST ASIA & INDONESIA [CON'T]
 

þ SETTLEMENTS BY NEOLITHIC HUNTER-GATHERERS IN
THAILAND & VIETNAM AS LONG AGO AS 10,000 BC.

     þ POTTERY --> 5TH MILLENIUM BC
     þ BRONZE TOOLS, WEAPONS, ORNAMENTS --> FROM
        2ND MILLENIUM BC.

     þ IRON WORKING --> 500 BC

     þ NATION-STATES DATE FROM TIME OF EUROPEAN
MIDDLE AGES.
 
 

þ BULK OF POP. IN SE ASIA LIVED IN ALLUVIAL RIVER
VALLEYS (E.G. MEKONG & RED RIVERS)

     þ PRACTICED IRRIGATED RICE CULTIVATION
 
 

þ OTHER LIVED ON ISLANDS WITH RICH VOLCANIC SOIL
(E.G. JAVA, BALI).
 

þ FISH IMPORTANT IN DIET OF SE ASIA.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

22
 HISTORY OF NORTH AFRICA
 

þ HISTORY OF NORTH AFRICA CLOSED TIED TO HISTORY OF
MEDITERRANEAN EUROPE, FROM ANCIENT TIMES TO
PRESENT.
 

þ VERY LITTLE CONNECTION BETWEEN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA
& EUROPE BEFORE 16TH CENTURY
 

þ NO WRITTEN RECORDS IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA BEFORE
ARRIVAL OF EUROPEANS IN 19TH CENTURY.
 

þ MUSLIMS CONVERTED BLACK AFRICANS LIVING IN SUB-
SAHARAN FRINGE.
 
 

þ ECONOMY OF N. AFRICA SIMILAR TO MEDITERRANEAN
EUROPE:

     þ WHERE ADEQUATE RAINFALL --> GRAIN GROWING
          --> ESP. WHEAT & BARLEY

     þ ELSEWHERE -- NOMADIC PASTORALISM.

          þ PASTORAL = PERTAINING TO SHEPARDS,
            HERDSMEN, OTHERS INVOLVED IN ANIMAL
            HUSBANDRY.[L. PASTOR  = SHEPARD].

          þ NOMADS = PASTORAL PEOPLE HAVING NO
            FIXED ABODE, MOVING FROM PLACE TO PLACE
            IN SEARCH OF FOOD & WATER. [GK NOMAS =
            ONE WHO WANDERS ABOUT FOR PASTURE.

          þ PASTURE = 1. GRASS OR OTHER VEGETATION
            EATEN AS FOOD BY GRAZING ANIMALS;
            2. GD ON WHICH SUCH VEGETATION GROWS.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

23
 HISTORY OF NORTH AFRICA [CON'T]
 

     þ LIVELY COMMERCE & TRADE.

     þ INDUSTRY --> HOUSEHOLD VARIETY.
 
 
 

þ  TRANS-SAHARA COMMERCE & TRADE:

     þ SOME EXISTED BEFORE CHRISTIAN ERA.

 
     þ DID NOT BECOME COMMON TILL CAMELS INTRODUCED
       [FROM MIDDLE EAST] IN 2ND CEN. AD.].
 

     þ RESTRICTED TO ITEMS OF LOW BULK, HIGH VALUE:

          þ GOLD
          þ IVORY
          þ SLAVES [ON FOOT]
          þ DATES --> DATE PALMS ON OASES.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

24
 HISTORY OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
 

þ ONLY A PART OF AFRICA COVERED WITH TROPICAL
FORESTS:

     þ CONGO BASIN       þ S. COAST OF W. AFRICA.
 

þ VAST STRETCHES OF SAVANNA = GRASS & SCRUB.
 

þ GREAT RIVERS OF AFRICA [NILE, NIGER, ZAMBEZI,
ETC.] HAVE FREQ. FALLS/RAPIDS --> HINDER COMMERCE.

     þ CANOES WIDE USED FOR PORTAGE.
     þ ALSO HEAD PORTAGE.
 
 

þ TRIBE BASIC SOCIAL GP. ABOVE FAMILY.

þ OCCASIONALLY, HAD LARGER POLITIES ABOVE TRIBE:

     þ CONFEDERATION  þ KINGDOM    þ EMPIRE
 

þ NO WRITTEN RECORDS --> EPHEMERAL KINGDOMS.
 

þ ECONOMY RANGED FROM:

     þ PRIMITIVE HUNTING & GATHERING
 
     þ SOPH. FIELD AGRICULTURE

     þ SOPH. STOCK RAISING ON SAVANNA.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

25
 HISTORY OF SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA [CON'T]
 

þ DOMESTICATED PLANTS & ANIMALS INTRODUCED FROM
EGYPT IN 2ND MILLENIUM BC.

     þ WHEAT & BARLEY NOT FLUORISH HERE.

     þ TSETSE [      ] FLY --> CARRIES DISEASES
FATAL TO LARGE DOMESTIC ANIMALS  --> THUS NO DRAFT
ANIMALS --> THUS FARM WITH WOODEN/IRON HOES

 
þ YES, SOME AGRICULTURE IN JUNGLE AREAS:

     þ USE SLASH-AND-BURN METHOD;

     þ MOVE FIELDS EVERY FEW YRS.

     þ GROW:

          þ ROOT CROPS
          þ BANANAS --> FROM SE ASIA --> ALSO
              DIFFUSED TO AMERICAS.

     þ MUCH FISHING FROM RIVERS.
 

þ  THOUGH TECH LEVEL LOW, CASTE OF IRONWORKERS &
PROFESSIONAL TRADERS EMERGES.
 

þ EXTENSIVE TRADE WITHIN AFRICAN SOCIETY:

     þ NOMADS OF SAHEL [ARID S. FRINGE OF SAHARA]
TRADE WITH SAVANNA'S SEDENTARY PEOPLE.

     þ MEAT, MILK, WOOL --> <-- GRAIN, CLOTH,
          METALS.

     þ ALSO SALT & SALTED FISH TRADED.

þ IN EAST AFRICA --> COWRY SHELLS USED AS MONEY.

     þ ELIMINATE NEED FOR BARTER.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

26

 BRIEF HISTORY OF PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICAS
 

þ AMERINDIANS DESCENDED FROM A MONGOLOID PEOPLE.

þ CROSSED LAND BRIDGE OVER BERING STRAIGHT FROM 2 -
30 K YRS AGO -- IN WAVES OVER THOUSANDS OF YRS.

þ WELL BEFORE CHRISTIAN ERA, NEW WORLD POPULATED
FROM ALASKA & CANADA DOWN TO TIERRA DEL FUEGO.
 

þ POP. DENSITY VARIED WIDELY:

     þ SPARSE --> GREAT PLAINS & AMAZONIAN JUNGLE.

þ POP. DENSITY GREATEST WHERE SETTLED AGRICULTURE:

     þ TEEMING --> CITIES OF MIDDLE AMERICA.
 

þ POP. DENSITY LIGHTEST --> WHERE
     HUNTING/GATHERING.
 
 

 AMERINDIANS DISCOVERED AGRICULTURE INDEP. OF OLD
  WORLD.

þ WHERE AGRICULTURE MOST INTENSIVE?

þ IN MEXICO, CENTRAL AMERICA, NW S. AMER.
 
þ BUT ALSO EXISTED IN
          þ SW U.S.
          þ EASTERN WOODLANDS OF N. AMER.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

27
 BRIEF HISTORY OF PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICAS [CON'T]
 

þ MOST COMMON CROPS

     þ MAIZE (INDIAN CORN)  þ TOMATOES  þ SQUASH
     þ PUMPKINS             þ BEANS     þ POTATOES
 
 

þ AMERINDIAN HAD NO DOMESTICATED ANIMALS EXCEPT:

     þ DOG
     þ LLAMA [IN ANDES] -->PACK ANIMAL, NOT DRAFT.
 

þ ACCORDINGLY, FARMING --> HOE CULTURE.
 

þ AMERINDIANS HAD FEW METALS, BUT MINED THESE:

     þ ALLUVIAL GOLD USED FOR ORNAMENTS
     þ SILVER
     þ COPPER
     þ BUT NO IRON.
 

þ INDIAN TOOLS MADE OF:

     þ WOOD  þ BONE  þ STONE  þ ESP. OBSIDIAN

     þ OBSIDIAN = A NATURAL VOLCANIC GLASS USED FOR
CUTTING & CARVING.

     þ OBSIDIAN [ob SID e an] = ACID-RESISTANT
LUSTROUS VOLCANIC GLASS, BLACK OR BANDED [AFTER
OBSIUS, A DISCOVER OF A STONE SIMILAR TO OBAIDIAN].
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

28
 BRIEF HISTORY OF PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICAS [CON'T]
 

þ AMERINDIANS PRODUCED ELEABORATE WORKS OF ART &
     MONUMENTAL ARCHITECTURE.
 

þ INDIANS ENGAGED IN LONG-DISTANCE TRADE AS LONG
  AGO AS 1500  BC:

     þ OLMEC TRIBES ON GULF OF MEXICO TRADED WITH
       MEXICAN CENTRAL HIGHLANDS:

          þ 8TH - 4TH CEN BC
          þ CARVED STAUETTES, ETC OF JADE
          þ OBSIDIAN
          þ CACAO BEANS (USED FOR MONEY & FOOD)
 

þ CACAO [ke KA o] = AN EVVERGREEN TROPICAL AM. TREE
WITH YELLOWISH FLOWERS & REDDISH-BROWN SEED PODS.
CALLED "CHOCOLATE TREE."

     2. SEEDS OF THIS TREE USED IN MAKING
        CHOCOLATE, COCOA, COCOA BUTTER.
 

þ COCOA [KO ko] = A POWDER MADE FROM CACAO SEEDS --
ROAST, GRIND, FREE OF FATTY OIL.
[VARIANT OF CACAO, BY CONFUSION WITH COCO(NUT)].
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

29
 PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICA: MAYAN CIVILIZATION --
 

þ LOCATED IN MODERN GUATEMALA & YUCATAN.

þ  EMERGED IN 2ND CEN. BC. PEAK: 4TH-9TH CEN AD.

þ  MOST STRIKING ASPECT OF MAYAN CIV. WERE ITS
   LARGE PYRAMIDS WITH TEMPLES ON TOP.
 

þ OTHER MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS:

     þ CONSTRUCTION OF NUMEROUS CIVIC CENTERS IN S.
       MEXICO & CENTRAL AMERICA -- A SERIES OF
       SMALL CITY-STATE POLITIES, WITH NO LARGER
       POLITICAL UNIFICATION.
 

     þ EACH CIVIC CENTER -- RESIDENCES, PYRAMIDAL
STRUCTURES, & TEMPLES CONSTRUCTED AROUND A CENTRAL
PLAZA:

     þ BUILDINGS --> CUT-STONE MASONRY.
     þ DECORATION --> SCULPTURES & STUCCO
     þ CORBEL-VAULT STONE ROOFS
     þ PAVED PLAZAS.
 

þ HALLMARKS OF MAYA ART ARE IN THESE CIVIL CENTERS:
 
     þ ELABORATE RELIEF CARVINGS
     þ MURAL & CERAMIC PAINTINGS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

30
 PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICA: MAYAN CIVILIZATION
   [CON'T]
 

þ YET, URBANIZATION NOT ALL THAT EXTENSIVE. MOST
  MAYA:
 
     þ LIVE IN SMALL VILLAGES WITH BLDGS OF
       PERISHABLE MATERIALS.

     þ NO ADVANCED DIV. OF LABOR.
 

þ ALSO DEVELOPED WRITING & A CALANDER.
 

þ MAIZE [CORN] WAS THE MAIN FOOD STAPLE.
 

þ MARKETS WERE COMMON.
 

þ MONUMENTAL ARCHITECTURE IMPLIES:

     þ SOCIETY ORGANIZED HIERARCHICALLY;
     þ A FOOD SURPLUS --> TO FEED A WORK FORCE.
 
 

þ PEOPLE REVOLTED AGAINST PRIESTLY RULERS ABOUT 900
AD:

     þ TEMPLES DESERTED --> OVERRUN BY JUNGLE.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

31
 PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICA: MAYAN CIVILIZATION
   [CON'T]
 

þ SPANISH BRING DISEASES -->DECIMATE MAYA POP.
 

þ MAYA REGION PERIPHERAL TO SPANISH COLONIES
  BECAUSE:

     þ LACK OF MINERAL WEALTH;
     þ SPARSE POP.
     þ LACK OF LAND SUITABLE FOR EXPORT CROPS.

     þ YET, SOME SUGAR & COFFEE PLANTATIONS EST. IN
       A FEW COASTAL REGIONS OF CHIAPAS, MX &
       GUATEMALA.

     þ BUT DIFFICULT TO MAINTAIN DUE TO MALARIA IN
       THESE LOWLAND AREAS & DIFFICULTY OF
       EXTRACTING LABOR FROM ADJACENT HIGHLANDS.
 
 

þ IN LATE 18TH CEN. WORLD DEMAND FOR CORDAGE &
FIBER ^^:

     þ CREATE LARGE HENEQUEN PLANTATIONS IN
       N. YUCATAN PENINSULA:

          þ LABOR DRAFTS
          þ POPULAR REBELLION 1847-54, TO DRIVE OUT
            ALL EUROPEANS, NEARLY REALIZED.
 

þ HENEQUEN = A TROPICAL AM. PLANT HAVING LARGE
THICK LEAVES THAT YIELD A COARSE REDDISH FIBER USED
IN MAKING ROPE & TWINE.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

32
 PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICA: MAYAN CIVILIZATION
   [CON'T]
 

þ IN 20TH CENTURY, RACIAL DIVISIONS REMAIN:

     þ COMMERCIAL & ADMIN. ELITE OF SPANISH-
       SPEAKING WHITES & LADINOS LIVING IN LARGER
       TOWNS.

     þ MUCH LARGER GP OF MAYA-SPEAKING PEASANTS IN
       RURAL VILLAGES.

     þ CASTE LIKE DIV. BETWEEN LADINOS &
       INDIGENOUS POP.
 

þ SEASONAL LABOR ON COFFEE PLANTATIONS ALONG
  PACIFIC COAST.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

33
 PRE=COLUMBIAN AMERICA: AZTEC CIVILIZATION
 

þ INDIAN PEOPLE DOMINATING CENTRAL MEXICO AT TIME
OF SPANISH CONQUEST.
 

þ FIERCE AZTECS CAME TO DOMINATE CENTRAL MEXICO IN
15TH & EARLY 16TH CENTURY.
 

þ SOCIETY DIVIDED INTO THREE MAJOR CASTES:
     þ NOBILITY
     þ PRIESTHOOD
     þ MILITARY & MERCHANT
 
 
 

þ AZTEC GOVN WAS CENTRALIZED.
 

þ YET CONQUERED CHIEFS RETAINED POLITICAL AUTONOMY
-- WHILE PAYING TRIBUTE & ENGAGING IN COMMERCE WITH
AZTECS.
 

þ AZTECS HAD LARGE & EFFICIENT ARMY.

þ PRISONERS --> USED FOR HUMAN SACRAFICE--> SATISFY
GODS OF AZTEC PANTHEON, ESP. CHIEF GOD, THE GOD OF
WAR.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

34
 PRE=COLUMBIAN AMERICA: AZTEC CIVILIZATION
   [CON'T]
 

þ AZTECS IMPRESSIVE IN:

     þ ENG'G   þ ARCHITECTURE   þ ART
     þ MATH    þ ASTRONOMY

 
þ SHOWED ENG'G SKILL IN DESIGN OF FORTIFICATIONS OF
 ISLAND CAPITAL.
 

þ AZTECS DISPLAYED SKILL IN:

     þ SCULPTURE    þ WEAVING   þ METALWORK
     þ ORNAMENTATION  þ MUSIC  þ PICTURE WRITING
 

þ SPANISH CONQUISTADOR CORTEZ FOUND WILLING ALLIES
IN HIS CONQUEST OF AZTECS AT TENOCHTITLAN IN 1519.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

35
 PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICA: THE INCAS OF PERU
 

þ BETWEEN 1200-1440 AD, THE INCAS, HIGHLAND TRIBE
WITH CAPITAL IN CUZCO, PERU, BEGAN CONQUERING
HIGHLAND & COASTAL REGION FROM ECUADOR TO CHILE.
 

þ INCA EMPEROR WAS ABSOLUTE MONARCH RULING BY
DIVINE RIGHT:

     þ ROYAL FAMILY OF 500 FORMED AN ENDUCATED,
GOVERNING UPPER NOBILITY.

     þ EMPIRE DIVIDED INTO 4 PARTS, THE PARTS INTO
PROVINCES, THESE INTO LOCAL COMMUNITIES, THE
POLITICAL/SOCIAL FDN.

     þ REQUIRED OBEDIENCE OF SUBJECTS CLOSE TO
SLAVERY.

     þ BUT GOVN RESPONSIBLE FOR WELFARE OF ALL
SUBJECTS.

     þ EVERYTHING OWNED BY STATE EXCEPT HOUSES,
MOVABLE HOUSEHOLD GOODS, AND SOME LAND.

     þ WELL-STOCKED STATE WAREHOUSE --> DRAW GOODS
TO SUPPORT PRIESTS, GOVN SERVANTS, SPECIAL
CRAFTSMEN, THE SICK, AGED, AND WIDOWS.
 

þ COMMON PEOPLE CULTIVATE LAND + ARE DRAFTED TO
WORK ON STATE PROJECTS -- MINING, PUBLIC WORKS,
ARMY.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

36
 PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICA: THE INCAS OF PERU
 

þ INCA RELIGION:

     þ VIRACOCHA, HEAD INCA GOD, HAD THESE
       SERVANTS:
          þ SUN GOD --> FOREMOST
          þ GOD OF WEATHER OR THUNDER
          þ THE MOON
          þ THE STARS
          þ THE EARTH
          þ THE SEA

     þ NUMEROUS CEREMONIES, CELEBRATIONS, FEASTS,
       FASTS.
 

þ NO WRITTEN LANGUAGE --> TRANSMIT MESSAGES WITH
  KNOTS ON STRING.
 
 
 

þ IMPOSED STATE BUREAUCRACY ON SUBJECTS:

     þ STATE-OWNED WAREHOUSES FOR STORAGE/DISTR OF
       GRAIN.
     þ ALSO PRIVATE MARKETS ALONGSIDE GOVERNMENT
       DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM.
 

þ INCA ENGINEERS SHOWED GREAT SKILL IN TERRACING,
  IRRIGATION, DRAINAGE, USE OF FERTILIZERS.

þ INCAS LACKED DRAFT ANIMALS, BUT HAD THESE
  DOMESTIC ANIMALS:

     þ LLAMAS, ALPACA, DOG, GUINEA PIG, DUCK.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

37
 PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICA: THE INCAS OF PERU
   [CON'T]
 

þ ARCHITECTS AND MASTER MASONS OF PUBLIC BLDGS &
ENG'G WORKS:

     þ BUILT CLAY MODELS.

     þ NO WHEELED VEHICLES FOR TRANSPORTING.

     þ HUGE STONE BLOCKS FOR CONSTRUCTING FORTRESS,
       PALACE, TEMPLE, & STOREHOUSE WERE EMPLACED
       USING RAMPS & ROLLERS.

     þ ADOBE BRICK & PLASTER WIDELY USED, ESP ALONG
       COASTAL DESERT.
 

þ INCAS GREATEST ENG'G ACHIEVEMENT: NETWORK OF
  ROADS (SOME STILL SURVIVE):

     þ LOG & STONE BRIDGES.
     þ CHASMS SPANNED WITH SUSPENSION BRIDGES, AS
       LONG AS 200 FT.

     þ ROAD SECTIONS MAINTAINED BY NEAREST VILLAGE.
 
 
 

þ INCA COMMUNICATIONS

     þ EACH VILLAGE PROVIDES MESSENGERS FOR ITS
SECTOR OF A ROAD;

     þ EACH RUNS 1 MILE AND IS RELIEVED BY ANOTHER
RUNNER

     þ MESSENGERS COVER 150 MI/DAY  VS. 13 DAYS FOR
SPANISH TO COVER SAME DISTANCE.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

38
 PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICA: THE INCAS OF PERU
   [CON'T]
 

 MANUFACTURING --> INCAS MADE TEXTILES, TRYING ALL
FIBERS.

     þ MADE ELABORATE MULTICOLORED TAPESTRIES.

     þ INCAS MINED FOR THESE METALS:

         þ COPPER & BRONZE FOR PUBLIC USE;

         þ GOLD, SILVER, TIN RES. FOR EMPEROR &
           UPPER NOBILITY.

     þ USED SMELTING, ALLOYING, CASTING, HAMMERING,
       SOLDERING, RIVITING.
 
 

     þ NO WRITING OR PAPER
 

þ SPANIARD FRANCISCO PIZARRO LANDED IN S.A. IN
  1532.

þ WAS WELCOMED BY INCA LEADER ATAHUALPA.

þ PIZARRO LURED ATAHUALPA TO HIS CAMP, KILLED HIM.
 
 

þ UNDER SPANISH RULE, INCA CULTURE WAS
HISPANICIZED:

     þ NATIVES REDUCED TO SUB. STATUS.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

39

 PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICA: AMERINDIANS OF N. AMERICA
   [CON'T]
 

 PUEBLO INDIANS OF THE SOUTHWEST
 

þ PRACTICED IRRIGATION AGRICULTURE.

     þ BY DIVERTING STEAMS OVER FLOOD PLAIN.

     þ HOHOKAMS OF SE ARIZONA BUILT EXTENSIVE
       CANALS REQUUIRNG COOPERATION OF SEVERAL
       VILLAGES.
 

þ BUILT URBAN SETTLEMENTS WITH MULTI-ROOM & MULTI-
STORIED HOUSES.

þ NEARLY ALL AMERINDIANS MADE:

     þ POTTERY
     þ BASKETS
 

 CAHOKIA, NEAR ST LOUIS

þ SUPPORTED DENSE POP. OF AGRICULTURALISTS
 

 EASTERN WOODLANDS INDIANS

þ EAST OF MISSISSIPPI --> CANADA TO GULF OF MEXICO

þ PRACTICED AGRICULTURE & HUNTING/GATHERING &
FISHING.

þ LIVED IN VILLAGES -- NOT TOWNS.

THE END