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heilbroner & milberg, Ch. 3 (PAGE 1)
 

 MAIN FORCES TRANFORMING EUROPE FROM TRADELESS
FEUDALISM INTO A MARKET SOCIETY
 

     HERE ARE THE MAIN LONGTERM FORCES THAT BROUGHT
ABOUT THE MARKET REVOLUTION:

1. THE ITINERANT MERCHANT

     þ TRADE   þ MONEY   þ ACQUISITIVE SPIRIT
 

2. URBANIZATION

     þ TOWN = CENTER OF MFG'G & TRADE
 

3. THE CRUSADES

     þ DISRUPTED FEUDAL LIFE.
     þ INTRODUCED NEW IDEAS
 

4. RISE OF NATIONAL STATES

     þ UNIFY COUNTRY
     þ ENCOURAGE COMMERCE
 
 
 

5. THE STIMULUS FROM AGE OF EXPLORATION
     & RESULTING GOLD & SILVER
 

6. EMERGENCE OF NEW RELIGIOUS IDEAS MORE
     SYMPATHETIC TO BUSINESS ACTIVITY

     þ THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION
 

7. MONETIZATION OF DUES WITHIN MANORIAL SYSTEM
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

2
 THE ITINERANT MERCHANT
 

þ SMALL PROCESSION OF ARMED MEN RIDING ALONG
PRIMITIVE ROAD IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE.

     þ MILITARY CHIEF
     þ GP. OF RIDERS WITH BOWS & SWORDS
     þ CARAVAN OF HORSES & MULES LADEN WITH
          þ CASKS   þ BALES  þ PACKS  þ BAGS

þ NO! NOT BAGGAGE TRAIN FOR SMALL ARMY.

þ RATHER, THIS WAS THE TRAVELLING MERCHANT
  IN EUROPE -- 8TH - 15TH CENTURY.

þ IN THE PACKS --> GOODS FROM ARABIA & INDIA.
     TO BE SOLD FROM TOWN TO TOWN.
 

þ THESE MERCHANTS --> RUNAWAY SERFS. LOW STATUS.
NOBLES VIEWED AS UPSTARTS, A DISTURBING ELEMENT.

þ THEY SET UP BRIGHTLY CANOPIED STALLS AT FAIRS:

     þ LORDS & LADIES FLOCK THERE.
     þ AS WELL AS SERFS OF THE FIELDS.

     þ PEPPER þ PURPLE DYE  þ SPLINTER FROM CROSS
     þ EXCELLENT FABRICS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

3

 MAIN HISTORICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF
  TRAVELLING MERCHANT
 

þ  AFTER COLLAPSE OF ROMAN EMPIRE, EUROPE HAD SUNK
IN A TRADELESS & SELF-SUFFICIENT MANORIALISM.

þ THE TRAVELLING MERCHANT WAS 1ST BREADTH OF
COMMERCIAL INTERCOURSE WITH OUTSIDE WORLD.

þ MERCHANT VISITED BOTH FAIRS AND TOWNS.

þ MANY MERCHANTS VISITED EVEN SMALL TOWNS SUCH AS
FORCALQUIER, FRANCE:

     þ NOT EVEN A ROAD TO CONNECT THIS TOWN OF 200
TO OUTSIDE WORLD.

     þ YET, IN MAY 1331, 36 ITINERANT MERCHANTS
VISITED AT THE SHOP OF LOCAL NOTARY TO DISPLAY
THEIR WARES.

     þ THUS, IN THOUSANDS OF ISOLATED COMMUNITIES
DID MERCHANTS WEAVE A WEB OF ECONOMIC
INTERDEPENDENCE.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

4

 URBANIZATION --> GROWTH OF TOWNS IN MIDDLE AGES
 

þ  TRAVELLING MERCHANT A FORCE IN CREATING NEW
VILLAGES & TOWNS.

þ TRAVELLING MERCHANTS STOPPED ONLY AT PROTECTED
SITES -- A LOCAL CASTLE (BURG) OR CHURCH  -- SET UP
OUTSIDE THE WALLS OF CASTLE OR CHURCH.

     þ DIE BURG = CASTLE    þ DER BERG = HILL

     þ BOURGEOIS = CLASS OF BUSINESS OWNERS
       [FR. BOURG = FORTIFIED TOWN.]
 
 

þ OVER TIME, AT WELL-SITUATED CASTLES AND CHURCHES,
PERMANENT TRADING PLACES GROW UP OUTSIDE THEIR
WALLS.

þ THESE PERMANENT TRADING PLACES BECOME THE CORE
FOR SMALL TOWNS.
 
 
 

þ BUT THESE NEW TOWNS [OR BURGS] WERE NOT PART OF
THE MANOR.

     þ MANY GROWING TOWNS THEMSELVES BUILD WALLS
       AROUND THEIR BORDERS.

     þ BURG = A FORTIFIED TOWN; A CITY OR TOWN
              [OLD ENG. BURG]

     þ SINCE SUCH TOWNS WERE NEW, THERE WERE NO
       CLEAR-CUT RULES ON THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH
       LOCAL LORD CONCERNING TAXES, OBLIGATIONS,
       ETC.

     þ THE INHABITANTS WERE CALLED

           þ BURGESSES   þ BURGHERS     þ BOURGEOIS
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

5
 URBANIZATION --> GROWTH OF TOWNS IN MIDDLE AGES
 

þ IN PREVIOUS CIVILIZATIONS, CITIES WERE THE
OUTPOSTS OF THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT.

þ BUT NOW THESE NEW TOWNS WERE INDEPENDENT ENTITIES
-- OUTSIDE OF THE PREVAILING FEUDAL SOCIETY.
 
 

þ YET GROWTH OF CITIES IN MIDDLE AGES WAS SLOW:

     þ MAIN REASON: POOR OR NON EXISTENT ROADS.

þ FALL OF ROME --> ROADS NEGLECTED --> PEOPLE
PILFER ROAD STONES FOR BUILDING --> DIFFICULT TO
TRANSPORT GOODS.
 
 
 

þ BETWEEN 500 -1500 AD, 1,000 NEW TOWNS CREATED IN
EUROPE. SUCH HUGELY STIMULATED:

          þ COMMERCIALIZATION OF LIFE;
          þ MONETIZATION OF LIFE.
 
 

þ WHY SO? BECAUSE EACH TOWN HAD ITS OWN:

     þ TOLL GATES
     þ ARTISAN WORKSHOPS
     þ GRANERIES
     þ LOCAL MARKETS [MTG PT FOR SELLERS/BUYERS]
     þ LOCAL MINT [OFTEN]
     þ DRINKING PLACES
     þ INNS
     þ AIR OF CITY LIFE VS. COUNTRY LIFE
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

6
 THE CRUSADES
 

þ THREE MAJOR FACTORS IN THE RISE OF A MARKET
SOCIETY OUT OF MEDIEVAL LIFE:

   þ ITINERANT MERCHANT  þ TOWNS   þ CRUSADES
 

þ CRUSADES HELPED ESTABLISH A MORE MATERIALLY
ORIENTED SOCIETY, TO WHICH CHURCH OPPOSED.
 

þ CRUSADES NOT ONLY RELIGIOUS EXPEDITION, BUT:

     þ AN EXPLORATION EXPEDITION.
     þ A COLONIZATION EXPEDITION.
 

þ THESE DISCOVERIES OPENED EYES OF CRUSADERS, WHO
CAME FROM SLUMBERING, RURAL, BORING EUROPEAN
FEUDALISM -- WITH ITS AVERSION TO TRADE:

     þ  THE BRILLANCE OF VENICE & BYZANTIUM, WITH
        ITS URBAN VITALITY, UNABASHED MONEY MAKING.
 
     þ THE EXCITEMENT OF NEAR EAST CIVILIZATIONS.
       INSTEAD OF HEATHEN SAVAGES, THEY FOUND
       PEOPLE FAR MORE CIVILIZED, MORE MONEY-
       ORIENTED, MORE LUXURY-ORIENTED THAN
       THEMSELVES.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

7
 THE CRUSADES [CON'T]
 

þ DURING THE FIRST THREE CRUSADES, THE VENETIANS:

     þ PROVIDED SHIP TRANSPORT;
     þ FLEECED THE CRUSADERS;
     þ GOUGED CRUSADERS ON FARES;
     þ SACKED CHRISTIAN ZARA, A RICH COMMERCIAL
         RIVAL OF VENICE;
     þ SACKED CHRISTIAN CONSTANTINOPLE, WITH VENICE
       PROFITING GREATLY. MUCH SILVER BOOTY.
 
 
 

þ ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CRUSADES GREATER THAN
RELIGIOUS:

     þ KNIGHTS MELTED DOWN THEIR SILVER PLATE TO
JOIN CRUSADES, CAME BACK PENNILESS TO RUINED MANOR
HOUSES.

     þ IN 1101, GENOESE RAIDED CAESARA, PALESTINE.

     þ OLD LAND-BASE WEALTH MEETS MORE ALLURING
         MONEY-BASED WEALTH.

     þ TRADITION CONCEPTION OF LIFE CONFRONTS NEW
       CONCEPTION -- AN EXISTENCE WEALTHIER, GAYER,
       MORE VITAL.
 

 
þ IN SUM, CRUSADES SHOOK SLUGGISH EUROPEAN FEUDAL
SOCIETY OUT OF ITS RUT, SPEEDING ECONOMIC
TRANSFORMATION OF EUROPE.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

8
 GROWTH OF NATIONAL POWER
 

þ ANOTHER FACTOR IN COMMERCIALIZATION OF ECONOMIC
LIFE --> AMALGAMATION OF POLITICAL ENTITIES INTO
LARGER WHOLES.
 

þ ROME'S FALL --> DISINTEGRATION OF ECONOMIC LIFE.
 

þ SHOWED VIGOROUS ECONOMY DEPENDS ON STRONG/BROAD
POLITICAL BASE.
 
 

þ EUROPE BEGINS REKNITTING ITSELF --> ECON. TEMPO
UP.
 

þ MOST STRIKING ASPECT OF MIDDLE AGES -->
COMPARTMENTALIZATION OF POLITICAL AUTHORITY.
 

þ SUCH COMPARTMENTALIZATION CRIPLING TO ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT:

     þ IN STRETCH OF 100 MILES, TRAVELLING MERCHANT
ENCOUNTERS A DOZEN SOVEREIGNTIES.

     þ IN 14TH & 15TH CENT., 30 TOLL STATIONS ALONG
WESER RIVER; 35 ALONG ELBE; 60 ALONG RHINE RIVER,
MOST BELONGING TO LOCAL ECCLESIASTICAL PRINCES.

     þ ALONG SEINE R. IN FRANCE, LATE 15TH CENT.,
IT COST HALF FINAL SELLING PRICE TO SHIP GRAIN 200
MILES DOWN RIVER.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

9
 GROWTH OF NATIONAL POWER [CON'T]
 

þ EACH JURISDICTION HAS ITS OWN:
     þ TOLLS
     þ LAWS, RULES & REGS
     þ WEIGHTS & MEASURES
     þ MONEY
 
 

þ ENGLAND WAS BIG EXCEPTION: IT HAD INTERNALLY
UNIFIED MARKET IN MIDDLE AGES:

     þ A MAJOR REASON ENGLAND EMERGED AS FIRST
GREAT EUROPEAN ECONOMIC POWER.
 
 

þ MAP OF EUROPE: GREAT COMPLEXITY IN 10TH CENT. -->
SIMPLER MODERN MAP OF 16TH CENT.
 
 
 
 

þ HOW DID AMALGAMATION OCCUR?

     þ TOWNS PLAYED CRUCIAL ROLE.

     þ CITY BURGHERS BECAME ALLIES OF NACENT
MONARCHIES, SUPPLYING CASH.

     þ CITY BURGHERS THEREBY DISTANCE THEMSELVES
FROM LOCAL FEUDAL LORDS.

     þ MONARCH & BOURGEOIS BRING ABOUT GROWTH OF
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

10
 GROWTH OF NATIONAL POWER [CON'T]
 

þ MAIN RESULTS OF CENTRALIZED GOVERNMENT:

     þ UNIFICATION OF LAWS;
     þ UNIFICATION OF MONEY;
     þ STIMULUS TO DEVELOPMENT OF
        COMMERCE & INDUSTRY.

     þ IN FRANCE, MFG'G PROMOTED BY ROYAL PATRONAGE
       OF GOBELIN TAPESTRY WORKS & SEVRES PORCELAIN
       WORKS.

     þ DEMANDS OF ROYAL PALACES & BANQUET HALLS
       CREATED WORK FOR INNUMERASBLE CRAFTSMEN &
       ARTISANS.
 
 

þ GROWING NATIONAL POWER ALSO MEANT:

     þ THE BUILDING OF NAVIES;
     þ THE EQUIPPING OF ARMIES;
     þ THE PAYING OF MERCENARIES.
 
 

þ ALL THIS SET INTO FASTER MOTION THE PUMPS OF
MONETARY CIRCULATION.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

11
 EXPLORATION
 

þ  EUROPEAN KINGS IN PURSUIT OF WEALTH FOR THEIR
TREASURIES SPONSORED EXPLORATORY EXPEDITIONS.

þ MOST OF THE GREAT EXPLORERS OF THE 15TH & 16TH
CENTURY -- DA GAMA, COLUMBUS, MAGELLAN, ETC. -- NOT
ACTING ON THEIR OWN, BUT BACKED BY KINGS.
 
 

þ ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF EXPEDITIONS:

     þ RESULTED IN AN INVIGORATING FLOW OF GOLD &
SILVER INTO EUROPE.

     þ GOLD & SILVER FROM PERU & MEXICO --> SPAIN -
-> EUROPE
 

     þ BETWEEN 1520 - 1650, EUROPEAN PRICES
INCREASED 200 TO 400% --> GREATLY STIMULATED BOTH
SPECULATION & COMMERCE.
 

     þ EST. OF COLONIES --> LONGTERM ECONOMIC
STIMULUS --> TRADE WITH NEW WORLD --> BIG BOOST TO
ECONOMY OF OLD WORLD -->  TRANSFORMED EUROPE INTO
BUSTLING COMMERCIAL SOCIETY.
 

þ IN SUM, DISCOVERY OF NEW WORLD HAD REVOLUTIONARY
EFFECT ON THE OLD -->  MOVED EUROPE FROM FEUDAL
AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY --> MARKET SOCIETY.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

12
 CHANGE IN RELIGIOUS CLIMATE

þ ABOVE FORCES OF CHANGE ALL VISIBLE:

     þ TRAVELLING MERCHANTS
     þ EXPANDING TOWNS
     þ CRUSADES
     þ GROWING NATIONAL POWER
     þ FAR-FLUNG EXPLORATIONS.
 
 

þ YET, THOSE WERE NOT ONLY FORCES UNDERMINING
FEUDALISM AND USHERING IN MODERN CAPITALISM.
 

þ POWERFUL INVISIBLE CHANGES

     þ IN INTELLECTUAL ATM.
     þ BELIEFS
     þ ATTITUDES.
 

þ MEDIEVAL CHURCH --> STRONG OTHER-WORLDLY
  ORIENTATION:

     þ DISAPPROVED WEALTH-SEEKING.

     þ LIFE ON EARTH IS BRIEF, TRANSIENT.

     þ PURPOSE OF THIS LIFE: TO PREPARE FOR
       ETERNAL LIFE.

     þ EARTHLY LIFE UNIMPORTANT. FORGET ABOUT
       GETTING RICH. FOCUS ON YOUR SOUL..
 

þ BY 1500S, MAJOR TRANSITION TAKING PLACE FROM
OTHER-WORLDLY TO THIS-WORLDLY CULTURE (P. SOROKIN).
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

13
 CALVINISM AND THE SPIRIT OF CAPITALISM
 

þ FATHER OF SOCIOLOGY MAX WEBER [1864-1920]
  PROTESTANT ETHIC & THE SPIRIT OF CAPITALISM.

     þ ARGUED RISE OF CALVINISM WAS KEY
       REASON FOR RISE OF MODERN CAPITALISM.
 

þ JOHN CALVIN [1509 - 1564]
 

þ CALVINISM --> PREDESTINATION.

     þ FROM BEGINNING, GOD HAD CHOSEN SAVED &
       DAMNED.

     þ NOTHING MAN COULD DO ON EARTH COULD ALTER
       GOD'S DECISION.

     þ DAMNED GREATLY OUTNUMBERED SAVED.
 
 

þ THIS HARSH CALVINIST DOCTRINE ALTERED IN
NETHERLANDS & ENGLAND.
 

þ CALVINISTS ANXIOUS, LOOKED FOR A SIGN THEY MIGHT
BE AMONG ELECT:

     þ IF ONE LIVED WANTON LIFE, SURE SIGN
       ONE IS DAMNED.

     þ BUT IF ONE LIVED BLAMELESS & PRODUCTIVE
       LIFE, A SIGN ONE MIGHT BE AMONG ELECT.
 
 

þ THUS, CALVINISTS URGED A LIFE OF RECTITUDE,
SEVERITY, DILIGENCE.

     þ SIGNS ONE AMONG ELECT.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

14
 CATHOLIC VS. CALVINIST OUTLOOK
 

þ CATHOLIC OUTLOOK

     þ WORLDLY STRIVING IS IN VAIN.
 

þ CALVINIST OUTLOOK

     þ WORLDLY STRIVING & ACHIEVEMENT -->
       AN INDEX OF YOUR SPIRITUAL WORTH.
 

þ CALVINIST --> EACH PERSON HAS A CALLING -->
PLEASE GOD BY BEING DEDICATED TO IT.

     þ DEDICATED MERCHANT --> A GODLY MAN.

 
þ CATHOLIC MERCHANTS & NOBILITY INDULGED IN LUXURY,
DISSIPATED THEIR WEALTH.
 

þ BUT CALVINIST MFGRS & MERCHANTS:
 
     þ FROWNED ON LUXURY, EASE, SELF INDULGENCE.
 
     þ WEALTH MUST NOT BE ENJOYED & FRITTERED AWAY.

     þ WEALTH MUST BE ACCUMULATED, PUT TO GOOD USE,
       SAVED AND INVESTED.

     þ SAVINGS & INVESTMENT --> SIGN OF PIETY.
 

þ CALVINISM MADE RESPECTABLE IDEAL OF MATERIAL
IMPROVEMENT, OF ECONOMIC GROWTH.

þ PROTESTANT COUNTRIES WITH PURITAN ETHIC OF WORK &
THRIFT FORGED AHEAD IN THE ECONOMIC RACE.
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

15
 DISINTEGRATION OF THE MANORIAL SYSTEM
 

þ CONTINUING WITH FORCES TRANSFORMING FEUDAL
SOCIETY --> MARKET ECONOMY
 

þ PAYMENT IN KIND =
     þ DAYS OF LABOR ON LORD'S DEMESNE
     þ PAYMENT IN CHICKENS, EGGS, WHEAT, ETC.
 

þ GRADUAL MONETIZATION OF FEUDAL OBLIGATIONS:
 
     þ PAYMENTS IN KIND --> MONEY DUES &
       MONEY RENTS.
 

þ WHY THE CHANGE?

     þ TOWNS GREW --> POP. UP --> GROWING DEMAND
       FOR FOOD.

     þ MONEY NOW FILTERS OUT TO COUNTRYSIDE.

     þ RURAL SECTOR GROWING CAP. TO BUY URBAN
       GOODS, & GROWING APPETITE FOR SUCH.

     þ NOBLES CRAVE GREATER CASH INCOME TO BUY
       GROWING VARIETY OF URBAN GOODS.

     þ NOBLES INCREASING FAVOR RECEIVING RENTS &
       DUES IN MONEY RATHER THAN KIND.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

16
 DISINTEGRATION OF THE MANORIAL SYSTEM [CON'T]
 

þ IN DOING, NOBLES UNWITTINGLY FURTHER UNDERMINE
MANORIAL SYSTEM.

     þ OLD FEUDAL SERVICES --> CONVERTED INTO FIXED
          MONEY PAYMENTS --> HURT NOBLES DURING
          SUBSEQUENT INFLATION.
 
 

þ RURAL NOBILITY, DEPENDENT ON RENTS & DUES FOR
INCOME, STEADILY LOST ECONOMIC POWER --> BECAME
IMPOVERISHED NOBILITY.

     þ NOBILITY SQUEEZED BETWEEN RISING PRICES &
COSTS & STATIC INCOMES.

     þ MERCHANT CLASSES -- TO WHOM CASH MIGRATED --
STEADILY INCREASED POWER.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

17
 MONETIZATION & COMMERCIALIZATION OF SOCIETY
   LEADS TO "ABSTRACT" LAND, LABOR, & CAPITAL
 

þ IN MEDIEVAL TIMES, LABOR WAS SET IN A PART.
SOCIAL CONTEXT:

     þ SERF WORKED FOR LORD IN RETURN FOR
       SUBSISTENCE.

     þ APPRENTICE WORKED FOR MASTER IN A SHOP,
       LIVED WITH HIM.

     þ FACE-TO-FACE PERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS.
 
 

þ BUT WITH MONETIZATION & COMMERCIALIZATION,
MODERN LABOR BECOMES ABSTRACT LABOR, DIVORCED
FROM THE FLESH-AND-BLOOD WORKER:
 

þ MODERN LABOR = A MERE QUNTITY OF EFFORT DETACHED
FROM A PERSON TO BE BOUGHT ON THE LABOR MKT IN
FIXED AMOUNTS. BUYER HAS NO RESPONSIBILITY TO
WORKER BEYOND PAYING HIM WAGES.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

18
 MONETIZATION & COMMERCIALIZATION OF SOCIETY
   LEADS TO "ABSTRACT" LAND, LABOR, & CAPITAL
 

þ MEDIEVAL LAND = WAS SEEN AS INVIOLABLE ESTATE OF
A FEUDAL LORD, AN AGRICULTURAL, POLITICAL, &
ADMINISTRATIVE REALM, A SOURCE OF POWER & PRESTIGE.
 

þ MODERN LAND = IS SEEN ONLY AS SOMETHING TO BE
BOUGHT OR LEASED SOLELY FOR ECONOMIC RETURN IT
YIELDS.

     IT IS AN ABSTRACT PROPERTY WITH A MARKET
PRICE, AVAILABLE FOR ANY USE. MAIN CONCERN IS
GETTING RENT, A MONEY RETURN FROM PUTTING LAND TO
PROFITABLE USE.
 
 
 

þ MEDIEVAL PROPERTY = A COLLECTION OF TANGIBLE
WEALTH --> PLATE, BULLION, JEWELS, LUXURIOUS HOMES,
CASTLES, ROBES, ARMAMENTS.
 

þ BUT WITH MONETIZATION & COMMERCIALIZATION OF
SOCIETY, MODERN PROPERTY EXPRESSED IN MONETARY
EQUIVALENTS.
 

þ MODERN PROPERTY = CAPITAL = NO LONGER A
COLLECTION OF SPECIFIC GOODS BUT AN ABSTRACT SUM
WITH ANY USE WHOSE VALUE IS ITS CAPACITY TO EARN
INTEREST OR PROFITS.
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

19
 THE ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT: AGRICULTURE BECOMES MORE
EFFICIENT BUT AT THE EXPENSE OF THE PEASANT
 

þ THE TRANSITION FROM FEUDAL TO MARKET SOCIETY WAS
MOST WRENCHING TO THE PEASANTS:

     þ DISPOSSSED OF LAND
     þ TRANSFORMED INTO LANDLESS LABORERS
 
 

þ LANDED ARISTOCRACY SQUEEZED FOR CASH --> LOOK TO
ESTATES AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF CASH.
 

þ GROWING DEMAND FOR WOOLEN CLOTH IN EUROPE -->
NEED MORE & MORE WOOL.
 

þ ESP. IN ENGLAND, NOBLES BEGIN ENCLOSING COMMON
PASTURES, USED FOR GRAZING SHEEP.
 

þ ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT --> 13TH-19TH CENTURIES.

     þ HALF ARABLE LAND OF ENGLAND ENCLOSED.

     þ IN EARLY TUDOR DAYS, COMMON PASTURES
       CONVERTED TO SHEEP GRAZING.

     þ IN LATER CENTURIES, STRIPS & PLOTS OF
       MEDIEVAL MANOR WERE FORCIBLY CONSOLIDATED
       INTO LARGE TRACTS SUITABLE FOR COMMERCIAL
       FARMING.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

20
 THE ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT: AGRICULTURE BECOMES MORE
EFFICIENT BUT AT THE EXPENSE OF THE PEASANT [CON'T]
 
 

þ FROM ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE, ENCLOSURES MADE
AGRICULTURE MUCH MORE EFFICIENT:

     þ IN 18TH & 19TH CENTURY, ENABLED ENGLAND TO
       ESCAPE INEFFICIENCY OF MANORIAL STRIP
       SYSTEM.
 

þ BUT MOVEMENT WAS DEVASTATING TO PEASANTRY:

     þ IN 15TH -16TH CENT, 75 - 90 % OF TENANTS ON
       SOME ESTATES FORCED OFF THE LAND.
 
 
 

þ IN HIS UTOPIA, THOMAS MORE LAMENTS THAT NOBLES &
GENTLEMEN "LEAVE NO GROUND FOR TILLAGE, THEY
ENCLOSE ALL INTO PASTURES, THEY THROW DOWN HOUSES,
THEY PLUCK DOWN TOWNS AND LEAVE NOTHING STANDING,
BUT ONLY THE CHURCH TO MAKE OF IT A SHEEP HOUSE."
 
 

þ BUT ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT DESTROYED TRADITIONAL
FEUDAL TIES BETWEEN LORD AND PEASANT:

     þ PAVED WAY FOR DEMISE OF MANORIALISM.

     þ CREATED A NEW KIND OF LABOR FORCE --
       LANDLESS WORKERS IMPELLED TO FIND WORK FOR
       WAGES, IN COUNTRY, TOWN, CITY.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

21

 OTHER IMPORTANT TOPICS FROM CHAPTER 3
 

þ EMERGENCE OF PROLETARIAT [PP. 47-48]

     þ RURAL        þ URBAN
 

þ EMERGENCE OF BOURGEOISIE

     þ RURAL        þ URBAN
 

þ DIVISION OF LABOR [PP. 51-52]

     þ ADAM SMITH'S PINMAKER [READ P. 52]
 
 

þ SMITH'S GROWTH MODEL  [PP. 52-53]

     þ DRIVING FORCE BEHIND GROWTH OF THE ECONOMY
      IS ENTREPRENEUR'S DESIRE FOR BETTERMENT, FOR
      GREATER PROFITS.
 

     þ DESIRE FOR GREATER PROFITS
     þ EXPAND BUSINESS.
     þ EXPAND MORE EFFICIENTLY BY GIVING WORKERS
       MACHINES (I.E. MAKE CAPITAL INVESTMENTS)
 

     þ MACHINES INCREASE THE WORKER'S PRODUCTIVITY,
       SO HE CAN TURN OUT FAR MORE PRODUCT IN A DAY
       THAN BEFORE.
 

     þ AS OUTPUT OF INDIVIDUAL COMPANIES INCREASES,
       ENTIRE SOCIETY BECOMES MORE WEALTHY.
 

þ SMITH'S MARKET MECHANISM [PP. 53-55]