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JOHN STUART MILL:

 JOHN STUART MILL [1806-1873]
 

þ 19TH-C BRITISH PHILOSOPER & ECONOMIST.

þ LEARNED GREEK AT 3, LATIN AT 8.

þ BY 14, HAD READ MOST GK & LATIN CLASSICS IN
  ORIGINAL LANGUAGES.

þ BY 14, HAD ALSO READ WIDELY IN HISTORY, LOGIC,
  MATH, SCIENCE.

þ BY 13, HAD STARTED TO READ THE ECONOMISTS, ESP.:

     þ RICARDO      þ MALTHUS      þ BENTHAM
 

þ VERY IMPRESSED BY MALTHUSIAN POPULATION THEORY.
 

þ AT 17, ARRESTED FOR DISTRIBUTING PAMPHLETS
ADVOCATING BIRTH CONTROL & CONTRACEPTION, TO
IMPROVE WORKING CLASS.

þ AFTER SUFFERING FROM PERSONAL DEPRESSION, HE
DECIDED TO DEVOTE HIS LIFE TO POLITICAL & ECONOMIC
REFORM.

     þ BECAME BEST KNOWN 19TH-C BR PHILOSOPHER.
 

 JOHN STUART MILL [1806-1873] [C]

þ BOOKS BY J.S. MILL:

     þ A SYSTEM OF LOGIC [2 VOLS, 1843]
     þ ON LIBERTY [1859]
     þ CONSIDERATIONS ON REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT
          [1861]
     þ UTILITARIANISM [1862]
     þ AUTOBIOGRAPHY [1873]
     þ PRINCIPLES OF POLITICAL ECONOMY [1848]
 
 

þ MILLS' MOST IMPORTANT ECONOMIC IDEA:

     þ DISTINCTION BETWEEN PRODUCTION &
          DISTRIBUTION.

     þ PRINCIPLES REGULATING PRODUCTION OF WEALTH
ARE GROUNDED IN LAWS OF NATURE -- ARE BEYOND HUMAN
CONTROL.

     þ BUT THE LAWS OF DISTRIBUTION ARE PARTLY
CREATED BY HUMAN INSTITUTIONS,  THUS SUBJECT TO
CHANGE.

          þ IRISH FARMERS POOR BECAUSE OF WAY LAND
DISTRIBUTED -- NOT BECAUSE OF A LAW OF NATURE.
 

þ IT IS NOT JUST THAT SMALL MINORITY OF MANKIND
  SHOULD BE BORN TO ENJOYMENT OF ALL ADVANTAGES,
  WHILE THE IMMENSE MAJORITY ARE CONDEMNED TO
  NEVER-ENDING TOIL MERELY TO EARN BARE
  SUBSISTENCE.

þ BELIEVED THAT LAISSEZ-FAIRE CAPITALISM  WOULD BE
  SUPERCEDED BY "COOPERATIVE PRODUCTION" -->
  SOCIALISM.
 

 JOHN STUART MILL [1806-1873] [C]
 

þ MILL WELCOMED:

  þ WORKER COOPERATIVES  þ WORKER-OWNED ENTERPRISES

þ ENLIGHTED ACTION WOULD BRING VOLUNTARY
ASSOCIATIONS [E.G. WORKER COOPERATIVES & PROFIT-
SHARING].

þ MILL DID NOT BELIEVE THAT AN ECONOMY ORGANIZED
AROUND

     þ INDIVIDUAL ENTERPRISE
     þ PRIVATE PROPERTY
     þ FREEDOM OF CONTRACT
     þ MINIMUM OF GOVN ACTION

WAS THE FINAL CONSUMMATION OF ECONOMIC PROGRESS.

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