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KARL MARX:

7
 KARL MARX [1818-1883]
 

þ BORN IN GERMANY, FATHER A PETTY LEGAL OFFICIAL.

þ STUDIED PHILOSOPHY & RELIGION AT UNIV. OF BERLIN.

þ DOCTORAL DISSERTATION --> ON THE STOIC & EPICUREAN
  ROOTS OF CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE.

þ BECAME AB ATHEIST --> BARRED HIM FROM UNIVERSITY
  CAREER.

þ SO MARX WENT INTO JOURNALISM, BECAME EDITOR OF LIBERAL
  COLOGNE NEWSPAPER IN 1842.
 

þ BECAME CONVINCED OF ECONOMIC BASIS OF POLITICS:

     þ UNDERLYING POLITICAL THEORIES & POLITICAL POWER
       -- > ECONOMIC INTERESTS OF VARIOUS GPS IN SOCIETY.

þ MARX'S NEWSPAPER SHUT DOWN BY GOVN --> MARX TO PARIS --
> MARRIED --> MIXED WITH SOCIALISTS.
 

þ MARX GREATLY INFLUENCED BY PIERRE JOSEPH PROUDHON
[1809-1865], A SOCIALIST LEADER.

     þ P SAID "PROPERTY IS THEFT" & THAT WHOLE PRODUCT OF
INDUSTRY SHOULD GO TO WORKER.

     þ P SAID THAT PRIVATE OWNERSHIP OF MEANS OF
PRODUCTION ENABLED CAPITALIST TO APPROPRIATE WEALTH THAT
RIGHTFULLY BELONGED TO THE WORKER.

     þ THIS CONCEPT WAS BASIC TENET OF 19TH-C SOCIALISM
& KEY TO MARX'S VIEW OF CAPITALISM.
 

8
 KARL MARX [1818-1883]
 

þ IN PARIS MARX ALSO MET FREIDRICH ENGELS [1820-1895],
SON OF WEALTHY GERMAN TEXTILE MFGR, WHO OWNED MILLS IN
GERMANY & ENGLAND.

     þ ENGELS SUPPORTED MARX & HIS FAMILY FOR NEXT 35
       YRS.

þ MARX EXPELLED FROM FRANCE AT REQUEST OF PRUSSIAN GOVN.

þ MARX & ENGELS TO BRUSSELS IN 1848. WROTE THE COMMUNIST
MANIFESTO
 

þ MARX WENT TO LONDON, WHERE HE SPENT REST OF HIS LIFE:

     þ MOST TIME SPENT DOING RESEARCH IN BR. MUSEUM &
       WRITING HIS GREAT WORK, DAS CAPITAL.[VOL I, 1867,
       VOL II, 1885].
 

þ MARX TOOK LEADING PART IN THE INTERNATIONAL, AN
INTERNATIONAL ALLIANCE OF SOCIALIST PARTIES.

þ MARX GAVE REVOLUTIONARY SOCIALISM ITS THEORETICAL FDN.

9
 KEY MARXIAM IDEAS

þ ECONOMIC RELATIONSHIPS ARE DRIVING FORCE OF ANY
SOCIETY.

þ RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION --> DEPEND ON MATERIAL POWRS OF
PRODUCTION.

þ ECONOMIC STRUCTURE OF SOCIETY --> SUM TOTAL OF
RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION --> THE FDN ON WHICH RISE THE
LEGAL & POLITICAL SUPERSTRUCTURE & DEFINITE FORMS OF
SOCIAL CONSCIOUSNESS.

þ MODE OF PRODUCTION --> DETERMINES SOCIAL, POLITICAL,
SPIRTUAL PROCESSES OF LIFE.
 

þ CAPITALIST VS WORKER --> THESE TWO CLASSES, BOURGEOIS
& PROLETARIAT, STAND IN OPPOSITION, SINCE CAPITALIST CAN
PROSPER ONLY IF WORKER IS EXPLOITED.

þ MARX'S ATTACK ON CAPITALISM BEGAN WITH HIS LABOR THEORY
OF VALUE.

     þ TRUE VALUE OF ANY PRODUCT = AMOUNT OF LABOR USED
IN ITS PRODUCTION.

     þ LABOR NOT PAID THE FULL VALUE OF THE PRODUCT -->
THUS EXPLOITATION.
 

þ CAPITALISM --> GIGANTIC MECHANISM IN WHICH LABOR TIME
OF WORKER --> PROFITS --> CAPITAL.

     þ LABOR TIME IS OWNED BY WORKER.
     þ BUT CAPITAL IS OWNED BY CAPITALIST.
þ THUS, CAPITALIST CLASS GROWS INCREASINGLY WEALTHY OUT
OF LABOR OF WORKING CLASS.

10
 KEY MARXIAM IDEAS [C]
 

þ EXPLOITATION OF WORKER ALSO HAS PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECT --
> ALIENATION

     þ WORKER SEPARATED FROM TOOLS OF PRODUCTION.
     þ WORKER SEPARATED FROM THE PRODUCT.
     þ PREVENTS FULL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SELF.

     þ RESULT: PERVASIVE ALIENATION THAT DEHUMANIZES ALL
PERSONAL & SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS.

     þ MONEY PAYMENTS TAKE PLACE OF HUMAN FEELINGS.

     þ RESULT: A SOCIAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL PATHOLOGY THAT
PERVADES ALL CAPITALIST SOCIETY.
 

þ OTHER KEY MARXIAM IDEAS:

     þ BASE-SUPERSTRUCTURE THEORY
     þ CLASS WARFARE
     þ FEUDALISM --> CAPITALISM --> SOCIALISM -->
        COMMUNISM

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