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ROBERT OWEN:
 

 ROBERT OWEN [1771 - 1858], UTOPIAN
 

þ ROOTS OF EARLY SOCIALISM TYPIFIED BY ENGLISHMAN, ROBERT
  OWEN.

þ WORKED IN BR. TEXTILE INDUSTRY, STARTING AT 10.
  TEXTILE-MILL MGR AT 19.

þ BY 26, OWEN HAD BOUGHT TEXTILE MILLS AT NEW LANARK,
  SCOTLAND.

þ BEFORE OWEN, THIS IS HOWMILLS AT NEW LANARK MANAGED:

     þ THIEVES, DRUNKARDS, CRMINALS PART OF LABOR FORCE.

     þ CHILDREN FROM ORPHANAGES

     þ WORKDAY -- 6 AM - 7 PM.

     þ COMPANY TOWN --> WOODEN 1-ROOM HOUSES.

þ OWEN --> VERY RELIGIOUS. BELIEVED WORKERS IN NEW LANARK
  WERE BAD BECAUSE OF THEIR ENVIRONMENT/
 

 ROBERT OWEN'S NEW LANARK, SCOTLAND:
   A MODEL INDUSTRIAL TOWN

þ OWEN'S GOAL: TURN NEW LANARK INTO MODEL COMMUNITY:

     þ NO CHILD UNDER 10 CAN WORK.
     þ WORKDAY FIXED AT 10.5 HRS.
     þ SCHOOL IN EVES FOR WORKING CHILDREN.
     þ SET UP NURSERY SCHOOLS FOR YOUNG CHILDREN.

     þ "REGISTER OF CHARACTER" FOR ADULT WORKERS. THIS
        RECORDED:

          þ DRUKENNESS
          þ ILLICIT SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, ETC.
          þ PUBS DISAPPEARED.
          þ ILLIGITIMACY DROPPED.

     þ AN ELECTED COMMITTEE INSPECTED HOMES FOR
       CLEANLINESS.

     þ ESTABLISHED A FUND FOR THE INJURED, SICK, AGED -->
       WORKERS CONTRIBUTED 1/60TH OF THEIR WAGES.

     þ SAVINGS BANK EST. TO ENCOURAGE THRIFT

     þ OWEN EST. STORE THAT SOLD FOOD & OTHER QUALITY
       GOODS AT MUCH LOWER PRICES THAN PRIVATE
       SHOPKEEPERS.
 

 HOW SUCCESSFUL?

þ HIS PLANTS LOCATED IN SURPLUS-LABOR AREA.

     þ HIS WAGES WERE BELOW AVERAGE:

          þ MEN --> $2.40/WK  þ WOMEN --> $1.50/WK

þ HIS PATERNALISTIC METHODS BROUGHT HIGH LABOR
  PRODUCTIVITY.

þ IN 1819, HIS PROFITS = 12.5 %/INVESTED CAPITAL.
 

 ROBERT OWEN [1771 - 1858], UTOPIAN

þ OWN REALIZED THE NEED FOR INDUSTRIAL SELF-GOVERNMENT BY
  THE WORKERS.

þ 1N 1816, OWEN WROTE ONE OF LANDMK BOOKS OF SOCIALIST
  MOVEMENT, THE NEW VIEW OF SOCIETY

þ AT THIS TIME, ENGLAND WAS DEBATING FIRST FACTORY ACT TO

     þ LIMIT HRS OF WORK
     þ EST. MIN. AGE FOR CHILD LABOR.
     þ OWN LOBBIED HARD FOR BILL, BUT DISAPPOINTED IT DID
       NOT ADEQUATELY COVER CHILD LABOR.

     þ OWEN DISSAPOINTED OTHER EMPLOYERS DID NOT IMITATE
       NEW LANARK.
 

 OWEN FOUNDED NEW HARMONY, INDIANA IN 1824.

þ COOPERATIVE COMMUNITY.
þ LAND OWNED IN COMMON BY PEOPLE.
þ BUT THE COMMUNITY FAILED.
 
 

þ OWEN PUSHED THE FOUNDING OF COOPERATIVE RETAIL STORES
  IN ENGLAND:

     þ BEGINNING OF CONSUMERS' COOPERATIVE MOVEMENT IN
       ENGLAND & SCANDINAVIA.

þ OWEN ALSO PUSHED PRODUCERS' COOPERATIVES -- WORKERS WHO
  OWNED THEIR FACTORY.

     þ PROJECTS DID NOT SUCCEED.
 

þ IN SUM, OWEN A VISIONARY WHO SOUGHT TO REFORM SOCIETY
  THRU WORKER-OWNED COMMUNMITIES & ENTERPRISES:

     þ PROFITS NOT PERMITTED.
     þ EXPECTED LIFE OF INDIVIDUAL WOULD HAVE LARGER
       MEANING THRU COOPERATIVE LIFE OF GROUP.

     þ BUT AN INDIVIDUALISTIC ERA --> DOOMED TO FAIL.

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